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    Periodic table elements

    Periodic Table of Elements

    The Periodic Table of the Elements, also known as the Table or Mendeleev’s Table, or simply Periodic Table, represents all chemical elements, ordered by increasing atomic number and organized according to their electronic configuration, which underlies their chemical properties.

    The design of this table is generally attributed to the Russian chemist Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev, who, in 1869, built a table, different from the one used today, but similar in principle, whose great interest was to propose a classification systematic system of elements known at the time in order to underline the periodicity of their chemical properties, to identify the elements which remained to be discovered, even to predict certain properties of chemical elements then unknown.

    Read also: Chemistry Studies and Branches (Fields of Chemistry)

    The periodic table has undergone many readjustments since then until it takes the form we know it today. It has become a universal repository to which all types of physical and chemical behavior of the elements can be related. Since the IUPAC update of November 28, 2016, its standard form has 118 elements, ranging from 1H hydrogen to 118Og oganesson.

    Periodic table

    Group123456789101112131415161718
    Hydrogen &
    alkali metals
    Alkaline earth metalsPnicto­gensChal­co­gensHalo­gensNoble
    gases
    Period

    1

    Hydro­gen1H1.008He­lium2He4.0026
    2Lith­ium3Li6.94Beryl­lium4Be9.0122Boron5B10.81Carbon6C12.011Nitro­gen7N14.007Oxy­gen8O15.999Fluor­ine9F18.998Neon10Ne20.180
    3So­dium11Na22.990Magne­sium12Mg24.305Alumin­ium13Al26.982Sili­con14Si28.085Phos­phorus15P30.974Sulfur16S32.06Chlor­ine17Cl35.45Argon18Ar39.95
    4Potas­sium19K39.098Cal­cium20Ca40.078Scan­dium21Sc44.956Tita­nium22Ti47.867Vana­dium23V50.942Chrom­ium24Cr51.996Manga­nese25Mn54.938Iron26Fe55.845Cobalt27Co58.933Nickel28Ni58.693Copper29Cu63.546Zinc30Zn65.38Gallium31Ga69.723Germa­nium32Ge72.630Arsenic33As74.922Sele­nium34Se78.971Bromine35Br79.904Kryp­ton36Kr83.798
    5Rubid­ium37Rb85.468Stront­ium38Sr87.62Yttrium39Y88.906Zirco­nium40Zr91.224Nio­bium41Nb92.906Molyb­denum42Mo95.95Tech­netium43Tc​[97]Ruthe­nium44Ru101.07Rho­dium45Rh102.91Pallad­ium46Pd106.42Silver47Ag107.87Cad­mium48Cd112.41Indium49In114.82Tin50Sn118.71Anti­mony51Sb121.76Tellur­ium52Te127.60Iodine53I126.90Xenon54Xe131.29
    6Cae­sium55Cs132.91Ba­rium56Ba137.331 asteriskLute­tium71Lu174.97Haf­nium72Hf178.49Tanta­lum73Ta180.95Tung­sten74W183.84Rhe­nium75Re186.21Os­mium76Os190.23Iridium77Ir192.22Plat­inum78Pt195.08Gold79Au196.97Mer­cury80Hg200.59Thallium81Tl204.38Lead82Pb207.2Bis­muth83Bi208.98Polo­nium84Po​[209]Asta­tine85At​[210]Radon86Rn​[222]
    7Fran­cium87Fr​[223]Ra­dium88Ra​[226]1 asteriskLawren­cium103Lr​[266]Ruther­fordium104Rf​[267]Dub­nium105Db​[268]Sea­borgium106Sg​[269]Bohr­ium107Bh​[270]Has­sium108Hs​[269]Meit­nerium109Mt​[278]Darm­stadtium110Ds​[281]Roent­genium111Rg​[282]Coper­nicium112Cn​[285]Nihon­ium113Nh​[286]Flerov­ium114Fl​[289]Moscov­ium115Mc​[290]Liver­morium116Lv​[293]Tenness­ine117Ts​[294]Oga­nesson118Og​[294]
    1 asteriskLan­thanum57La138.91Cerium58Ce140.12Praseo­dymium59Pr140.91Neo­dymium60Nd144.24Prome­thium61Pm​[145]Sama­rium62Sm150.36Europ­ium63Eu151.96Gadolin­ium64Gd157.25Ter­bium65Tb158.93Dyspro­sium66Dy162.50Hol­mium67Ho164.93Erbium68Er167.26Thulium69Tm168.93Ytter­bium70Yb173.05
    1 asteriskActin­ium89Ac​[227]Thor­ium90Th232.04Protac­tinium91Pa231.04Ura­nium92U238.03Neptu­nium93Np​[237]Pluto­nium94Pu​[244]Ameri­cium95Am​[243]Curium96Cm​[247]Berkel­ium97Bk​[247]Califor­nium98Cf​[251]Einstei­nium99Es​[252]Fer­mium100Fm​[257]Mende­levium101Md​[258]Nobel­ium102No​[259]

    Since 2016, the periodic table has 118 confirmed elements, from element 1 (hydrogen) to 118 (oganesson). Elements 113, 115, 117 and 118, the most recent discoveries, were officially confirmed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) in December 2015. Their proposed names, nihonium (Nh), moscovium (Mc), tennessine (Ts) and oganesson (Og) respectively, were made official in November 2016 by IUPAC.

    The first 94 elements occur naturally; the remaining 24, americium to oganesson (95–118), occur only when synthesized in laboratories. Of the 94 naturally occurring elements, 83 are primordial and 11 occur only in decay chains of primordial elements. No element heavier than einsteinium (element 99) has ever been observed in macroscopic quantities in its pure form, nor has astatine (element 85); francium (element 87) has been only photographed in the form of light emitted from microscopic quantities (300,000 atoms).

    Groups

    A group or family is a vertical column in the periodic table. Groups usually have more significant periodic trends than periods and blocks. Modern quantum mechanical theories of atomic structure explain group trends by proposing that elements within the same group generally have the same electron configurations in their valence shell. Consequently, elements in the same group tend to have a shared chemistry and exhibit a clear trend in properties with increasing atomic number. In some parts of the periodic table, such as the d-block and the f-block, horizontal similarities can be as important as, or more pronounced than, vertical similarities. Read alsoPeriodic table block S P D F | The Periodic Table of the Elements

    Under an international naming convention, the groups are numbered numerically from 1 to 18 from the leftmost column (the alkali metals) to the rightmost column (the noble gases). Previously, they were known by roman numerals. In America, the roman numerals were followed by either an “A” if the group was in the s- or p-block, or a “B” if the group was in the d-block. The roman numerals used correspond to the last digit of today’s naming convention (e.g. the group 4 elements were group IVB, and the group 14 elements were group IVA). In Europe, the lettering was similar, except that “A” was used if the group was before group 10, and “B” was used for groups including and after group 10. In addition, groups 8, 9 and 10 used to be treated as one triple-sized group, known collectively in both notations as group VIII. In 1988, the new IUPAC naming system was put into use, and the old group names were deprecated.

    Elements in the same group tend to show patterns in atomic radius, ionization energy, and electronegativity. From top to bottom in a group, the atomic radii of the elements increase. Since there are more filled energy levels, valence electrons are found farther from the nucleus. From the top, each successive element has a lower ionization energy because it is easier to remove an electron since the atoms are less tightly bound. Similarly, a group has a top-to-bottom decrease in electronegativity due to an increasing distance between valence electrons and the nucleus. There are exceptions to these trends: for example, in group 11, electronegativity increases farther down the group.

    IUPAC group1a2n/a3456789101112131415161718
    Mendeleev (I–VIII)IAIIAIIIBIVBVBVIBVIIBVIIIBIBIIBIIIBIVBVBVIBVIIBb
    CAS (US, A-B-A)IAIIAIIIBIVBVBVIBVIIBVIIIBIBIIBIIIAIVAVAVIAVIIAVIIIA
    old IUPAC (Europe, A-B)IAIIAIIIAIVAVAVIAVIIAVIIIBIBIIBIIIBIVBVBVIBVIIB0
    Trivial nameH and Alkali metalsrAlkaline earth metalsrCoin­age metalsTrielsTetrelsPnicto­gensrChal­co­gensrHalo­gensrNoble gasesr
    Name by elementrLith­ium groupBeryl­lium groupScan­dium groupTitan­ium groupVana­dium groupChro­mium groupMan­ga­nese groupIron groupCo­balt groupNickel groupCop­per groupZinc groupBoron groupCar­bon groupNitro­gen groupOxy­gen groupFluor­ine groupHelium or Neon group
    Period 1HHe
    Period 2LiBeBCNOFNe
    Period 3NaMgAlSiPSClAr
    Period 4KCaScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKr
    Period 5RbSrYZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAgCdInSnSbTeIXe
    Period 6CsBaLa–YbLuHfTaWReOsIrPtAuHgTlPbBiPoAtRn
    Period 7FrRaAc–NoLrRfDbSgBhHsMtDsRgCnNhFlMcLvTsOg
    a Group 1 is composed of hydrogen (H) and the alkali metals. Elements of the group have one s-electron in the outer electron shell. Hydrogen is not considered to be an alkali metal as it rarely exhibits behaviour comparable to theirs, though it is more analogous to them than any other group. This makes the group somewhat exceptional.
    n/a Do not have a group number
    b Group 18, the noble gases, were not discovered at the time of Mendeleev’s original table. Later (1902), Mendeleev accepted the evidence for their existence, and they could be placed in a new “group 0”, consistently and without breaking the periodic table principle.
    r Group name as recommended by IUPAC.
    New IUPAC nameCAS name (U.S.)Name by element
    Group 1IAlithium family
    Group 2IIAberyllium family
    Group 3IIIBscandium family
    Group 4IVBtitanium family
    Group 5VBvanadium family
    Group 6VIBchromium family
    Group 7VIIBmanganese family
    Group 8VIIIBiron family
    Group 9VIIIBcobalt family
    Group 10VIIIBnickel family
    Group 11IBcopper family
    Group 12IIBzinc family
    Group 13IIIAboron family
    Group 14IVAcarbon family
    Group 15VAnitrogen family
    Group 16VIAoxygen family
    Group 17VIIAfluorine family
    Group 18VIIIAhelium family or neon family

    Periodic Table with Element Names and Electronegativity

    This periodic table chart lists elements by name in alphabetical order including the element symbol, atomic number, and Pauling electronegativity value for quick and simple reference.

    Element NameSymbolAtomic NumberAtomic WeightElectronegativity (x)
    ActiniumAc89[227]1.10
    AluminiumAl1326.981.61
    AmericiumAm95[243]1.30
    AntimonySb51121.762.05
    ArgonAr1839.95
    ArsenicAs3374.922.18
    AstatineAt85[210]2.20
    BariumBa56137.330.89
    BerkeliumBk97[247]1.30
    BerylliumBe49.0121.57
    BismuthBi83208.982.02
    BohriumBh107[270]
    BoronB510.812.04
    BromineBr3579.92.96
    CadmiumCd48112.411.69
    CaesiumCs55132.910.79
    CalciumCa2040.081.00
    CaliforniumCf98[251]1.30
    CarbonC612.012.55
    CeriumCe58140.121.12
    ChlorineCl1735.453.16
    ChromiumCr24521.66
    CobaltCo2758.931.88
    CoperniciumCn112[285]
    CopperCu2963.551.90
    CuriumCm96[247]1.30
    DarmstadtiumDs110[281]
    DubniumDb105[268]
    DysprosiumDy66162.51.22
    EinsteiniumEs99[252]1.30
    ErbiumEr68167.261.24
    EuropiumEu63151.96
    FermiumFm100[257]1.30
    FleroviumFl114[289]
    FluorineF9193.98
    FranciumFr87[223]0.70
    GadoliniumGd64157.251.20
    GalliumGa3169.721.81
    GermaniumGe3272.632.01
    GoldAu79196.972.54
    HafniumHf72178.491.30
    HassiumHs108[269]
    HeliumHe24.0030.00
    HolmiumHo67164.931.23
    HydrogenH11.0082.20
    IndiumIn49114.821.78
    IodineI53126.92.66
    IridiumIr77192.222.20
    IronFe2655.841.83
    KryptonKr3683.83.00
    LanthanumLa57138.911.10
    LawrenciumLr103[262]
    LeadPb82207.22.33
    LithiumLi36.9410.98
    LivermoriumLv116[293]
    LutetiumLu71174.971.27
    MagnesiumBe1224.311.31
    ManganeseMn2554.941.55
    MeitneriumMt109[278]
    MendeleviumMd101[258]1.30
    MercuryHg80200.592.00
    MolybdenumMo4295.942.16
    MoscoviumMc115[289]
    NeodymiumNd60144.241.14
    NeonNe1020.18
    NeptuniumNp93[237]1.36
    NickelNi2858.691.91
    NihoniumNh113[286]
    NiobiumNb4192.911.60
    NitrogenN714.013.04
    NobeliumNo102[259]1.30
    OganessonOg118[294]
    OsmiumOs76190.232.20
    OxygenO8163.44
    PalladiumPd46106.422.20
    PhosphorusP1530.972.19
    PlatinumPt78195.082.28
    PlutoniumPu94[244]1.28
    PoloniumPo84[209]2.00
    PotassiumK1939.10.82
    PraseodymiumPr59140.911.13
    PromethiumPm61[145]
    ProtactiniumPa91231.041.50
    RadiumRa88[226]0.90
    RadonRn86[222]
    RheniumRe75186.211.90
    RhodiumRh45102.912.28
    RoentgeniumRg111[281]
    RubidiumRb3785.470.82
    RutheniumRu44101.072.20
    RutherfordiumRf104[267]
    SamariumSm62150.361.17
    ScandiumSc2144.961.36
    SeaborgiumSg106[269]
    SeleniumSe3478.962.55
    SiliconSi1428.091.90
    SiliconSi1428.091.90
    SilverAg47107.871.93
    SodiumNa1122.990.93
    StrontiumSr3887.620.95
    SulfurS1632.072.58
    TantalumTa73180.951.50
    TechnetiumTc43[98]1.90
    TelluriumTe52127.62.10
    TennessineTs117[294]
    TerbiumTb65158.93
    ThalliumTl81204.381.62
    ThoriumTh90232.041.30
    ThuliumTm69168.931.25
    TinSn50118.711.96
    TitaniumTi2247.871.54
    TungstenW74183.842.36
    UraniumU92238.031.38
    VanadiumV2350.941.63
    XenonXe54131.292.60
    YtterbiumYb70173.04
    YttriumY3988.911.22
    ZincZn3065.391.65
    ZirconiumZr4091.221.33

    Sources: PinterPandai, Chemicool, Live Science, Royal Society of Chemistry

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