Renville Agreement Between the Netherlands and Indonesia (1948)
The Renville Agreement is an agreement signed between the Netherlands and the Republic of Indonesia under the auspices of the United Nations Security Council. The agreement entered into force on January 17, 1948, this agreement was an attempt to resolve disputes that arose after the Linggarjati agreement was signed in 1946. This agreement established a truce along a line known as the “Van Mook line”, named after the Governor-General of the Netherlands, who linking the most advanced Dutch positions.
The treaty was named after USS Renville, an American warship stationed in Batavia Bay (now Jakarta), where negotiations were held.
Why was there a Renville Agreement?
On 1 August 1947, an Australian resolution calling for a ceasefire between the Netherlands and Indonesia was adopted by the United Nations Security Council. The Lieutenant Governor General of the Dutch East Indies, Hubertus Johannes van Mook, gave a ceasefire order on 5 August.
On August 25, the Council adopted a resolution proposed by the United States proposing that the United States offer its goodwill to peacefully resolve the conflict between the Netherlands and Indonesia. This mediation takes the form of a “Committee of Good Offices” – “Committee of Good Offices (CGO)” – consisting of 3 representatives, one from the Netherlands, the other from Indonesia and the third co-opted from the agreement. The Netherlands chose to represent Belgium, Indonesia to represent Australia and both chose America as the third member.
A few days later, on August 29, 1947, the Dutch established the “Van Mook Line” as a marker of the boundaries of the territory they controlled at the time of the armistice. But they belong to a sector that they have not yet taken over. The Republic of Indonesia has only a third of Java and most of Sumatra, but the separatists have lost key areas that maintain agriculture. The Dutch blockade had not cut them off from their supply of weapons, food and clothing.
Starting from negotiation
After lengthy discussions, the parties agreed to hold the conference at a neutral venue. The United States provided negotiators with the aircraft carrier USS Renville docked in Jakarta Bay, and the Committee’s first informal session began on 8 December 1947.
The Indonesian delegation was led by Amir Sjarifuddin, assisted by Johannes Leimena; from the Dutch side, the delegation was led by Jhr. Van Vredenburg, assisted by Colonel Abdulkadir Widjojoatmodjo.
On 26 December, with negotiations deadlocked, the Committee issued a “Christmas message” proposing a ceasefire with the “Van Mook line” as the dividing line, the Dutch backed off on the line held before Operation Produk de Juli and the Indonesian Republicans in charge. over the civil administration in the area were evacuated. The Indonesians accepted the proposal unconditionally, but the Dutch only partially accepted it by submitting twelve counter-proposals. These included, among other things, demands for free elections that would allow residents to sever the nature of their relationship with the future United States of Indonesia and, for both camps, guarantees of freedom of assembly and expression. The Dutch refused the withdrawal of their troops and the passage under Indonesian administration in the areas returned to their control.
Tekanan Belanda di sela-sela perundingan Renville
Pada 19 Desember, Perdana Menteri Belanda, yang mengunjungi Medan, mengatakan harus ada solusi cepat dan “sangat disayangkan jika seruan terakhir ini tidak diindahkan”.
Sepuluh hari kemudian, Van Mook mengumumkan pembentukan negara bagian Sumatera Timur, yang menunjukkan bahwa Belanda masih dalam perjalanan untuk membentuk negara federal.
Kemudian, pada tanggal 4 Januari 1948, Belanda mengadakan konferensi perwakilan yang mereka pilih dari 10 wilayah Indonesia. Para wakil ini sepakat untuk membentuk pemerintah federal sementara sambil menunggu proklamasi Republik Indonesia Serikat, dengan Republik Indonesia diundang untuk bergabung sebagai mitra minoritas.
Photo credit (main photo): Wikimedia Commons
Main photo description: USS Renville (APA-227) docked off the coast of South Vietnam, 1966. The ship de Renville, here nearly 20 years after the treaty was signed in 1948.