Native American Heritage : culture, ritual and ceremony, belief, custom and symbol

Native American in the North America

Native American Heritage

Do you know that there are 567 sovereign Native American nations in the United States? Called in English as tribes, nations, clans, pueblos, communities or villages, 230 of them are in Alaska and the rest are spread over 35 states, representing a population of about 2 million people nationwide. Native American heritage is very rich, today Native American cultures are alive and evolving within cities, rural communities, tribal communities, and nations across the world with the globalization.

Lets find out the Native American Heritage through their traditions, languages and stories of Native people and ensure their rich histories and contributions can live on with each passing generation.

Native American cleansing ceremony

Smoke purification (known as “smudging” in English) is a cultural ceremony observed by different Indigenous peoples in other parts of the world. Although the practices differ, purification is still used for medicinal and practical purposes, as well as as part of spiritual ceremonies.

The purification usually consists of a prayer accompanied by the burning of sacred plants, such as sweet grass, cedar, sage and tobacco. Despite the repression of such traditions during the time of colonization, the purification survives to this day.

Native American ritual and ceremony

There are similarities between Native American ritual and spiritual traditions, including creation myths, roles or supernatural beings in folklore, oral traditions, history and legends. In addition, traditional ways of life and rituals are often associated with religion and spirituality. Native American ritual activities such as hunting, clan membership and other aspects of daily life are often associated with spiritual interpretation. This article aims to explain similar themes and practices, but should not be considered a complete article.

The territory also contains the memory of previous generations; this information is transmitted, in the mother tongue, through oral tradition, history and legends. Rite is a religious or other solemn ceremony or act

Another subject of transmission of traditional knowledge concerns the toponyms of the territory and their living environment, which are very descriptive.

The majority of their traditional activities also teach us about the use of natural resources, their material culture and their way of life. In other words, their identity.

Native American belief and custom

Their story would have started some 40,000 years before the arrival of Christopher Columbus. It was at this time that coming from Asia, they would have settled in America. An ice bridge then connects Siberia to Alaska. While pursuing herds of mammoths, groups of nomadic hunters unknowingly passed from Asia to America. Over the millennia, American Indians settled everywhere from North to South. Native American beliefs are incredibly rich, from religious celebrations, honors, communications, rites, dances and much more…

At the origin of all religions, we find the same respect for the earth and nature. Never will a religion preach that man is equal to God and must dominate nature. Submission to nature is common to all civilizations.

All around them nature presented itself as a spectacle, the American Indians knew how to respect and love it. They knew how to listen to him with enough humility to discover the links which unite animals, men and plants. Secret links that tradition has preserved until today.

“The American Indians lived in communion with nature. For them, there were spirits in trees, spirits in plants, spirits in flowers. This is what the Catholics wanted to destroy. Our people were destroyed. and martyred beyond the limit. A true holocaust”.

Native American culture

The culture of the indigenous people of America varies enormously. The language, dress and customs vary greatly from one culture to another. This is due to the extensive distribution of Americans and adaptations to different regions of America. For example, due to the semi-desert region, the Chichimecas of Aridoamérica never formed a civilization like those of Mesoamerica, its neighbors to the south.

As a consequence of this, the Chichimecas formed a culture based on the practice of nomadism. Although the Native American culture like Aztecs and Incas formed extensive and rich civilizations, the clothing of both depended greatly on the climate of their lands. In Mesoamerica, where the climate is warmer, they used to wear less clothing than the inhabitants of the Andes. Still, there are some cultural characteristics that most Native Americans practiced.

Native american culture symbol

Symbols provide people with a fun and interesting story of life, the spirit and of course nature. The Native American people were very close or in harmony with nature, and the spirit was very important to them.

Native Americans liked to express ideas through symbols, sometimes they painted the symbols on their artwork, and sometimes they painted the symbols on themselves, like tattoos.

Native Americans saw the world in a different way than most other peoples, they believed that everything and every person has a spirit, this fact makes Native Americans different from any other tribe or people.

The use of symbols in Native American tribes differs from tribe to tribe. However we will do our best to show you the most important Native American symbols and we will give you their meanings as well.

Native American in the North America

Indians of North America is the common term used in many countries for the indigenous peoples of the continent of North America who settle south of the Eskimo peoples of the Arctic. It is a large number of culturally diverse ethnic groups , the diversity of which is evidenced by the sheer number of hundreds of indigenous American languages . There can only be talk of an (additional) cross-tribal ethnic identity “Indians” since the end of the 19th century at the earliest – due to similar experiences in dealing with the intruders.

Native American in the North America
Native American in the North America:
1. Eskimo of Labrador
2. Eskimo woman of Greenland
3. Apache
4. Navaho
5. Koskimo woman, Vancouver
6. Cheyenne
7. Mandan
8. Ute
9. Blackfoot
10. Woman Moki chief
11. Nez Percé
12. Wichita woman
Photo credit: Scanned by User:LA2 in October 2005 / Wikimedia Commons

List of North American Indian tribes

This cultural complex includes near the extreme north of North America or above the Arctic Circle from the Aleutian Islands – island chain before Alaska eastward across the polar regions of Canada to Greenland and three ethnic groups of the Eskimo-Aleut language family inhabited:

  • Aleuts (Alëuts) (either from Aliut , a settlement of the Aliutoren , from Anklyt (“coastal people”), the self-designation of the coastal Chukchi [1] or from Allitkhukh (“community”) from West Aleut , own designation in Aleut language ( Unangam Tunuu) : Unangan (Eastern dialect) or Unangas (Western dialect), both “coastal people”, singular: Unangax̂ [2] )
  • Eskimo peoples (derived from Cree : ᐊᔭᐢᑮᒧᐤ ayaskîmow = ” Schneeschuhflechter “ [3] , two dialect groups with different names in the Eskimo languages ) [4]
    • Yupik or “Western Eskimo” (proper name: Yupiit – “true / real people”, singular: Yup’ik – “true / real person”, several groups of the “Western Eskimo” peoples on the Russian Chukchi Peninsula, southwest Alaska and some offshore islands; do not consider themselves”Inuit” and mostly not as “Eskimo” either.)
      • Siberian Yupik or “Yuit” (plural: Yuits , proper name: Yupighyt – “true / real people”, on the Chukchi Peninsula in northeast Russia and as far as St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, USA.)
        • Sirenik Eskimo language or “Sireniki Eskimo” (proper name in Russian: Sirenikites , saying that since 1997 extinct “Sirenik Eskimo language Yupik / Eskimo” or Uqeghllistun ( Russian : сиреникский язык / sirenikski jasyk called) in the settlements Sireniki (Sirenik Eskimo language Yupik: Sigheneg , Russian: Сиреники ) and Imtuk as well as some small villages that stretch west of Sirenik along the southeast coast of the Chukchi Peninsula , despite the language change from Sirenik (Uqeghllistun) to Uŋazigmit / Chaplino-Dialect of the Central-Yupik, they kept their separate cultural identity – this is based on the developed “Sirenik” variety of the Uŋazigmit / Chaplino dialect and the “local sense” in relation to their settlement “Sirenik”, as this is the only Yupik settlement is in Siberia, which has not been relocated and has therefore existed for about 2,500 years.)
        • Naukan or “Naukanski” (own name: Nyvukagmit – “People of Nuvuqaq (Naukan)”, named after their settlement “Nuvuqaq (Naukan)”, which was inhabited until 1958), lived from Cape Deschnjow in the extreme east of the Chukchi Peninsula and eastwards on the Diomedes Islands – with Little Diomede Island already part of Alaska.)
      • Yup’ik or “Yupiaq” (“true / real person”, plural: Yupiit / Yupiat – “true / real people”, live in the west and southwest of Alaska, from Norton Sound southwards along the Bering Sea coast in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta ( including the Nelson and Nunivak Islands) and along the north coast of Bristol Bay to Nushagak Bay and the northern Alaska Peninsula on the Naknek River and Egegik Bay, are divided into five dialect groups; also: Central Alaskan Yup’ik, Central Yup ‘ik, Alaska Yup’ik )
        • Norton Sound Yup’ik (live in Norton Sound , proper name: Yup’ik – “true / real person”, plural: Yupiit – “true / real people”)
        • General Central Yup’ik (on the Lower Kuskokwim River, on the coast up to Nelson Island and in Bristol Bay – own designation: Yupiaq – “true / real person”, plural: Yupiat – “true / real people”; on the Upper and Middle Kuskokwim River, Lower Yukon River and around Lake Iliamna – own designation: Yup’ik – “true / real person”, plural: Yupiit – “true / real people”)
        • Egegik Yup’ik (around Egegik (Igyagiiq) on the Egegik River at Egegik Bay; own name: Tarupiaq – “true / real person”, plural: Tarupiat – “true / real people”)
        • Chevak Cup’ik or Cup’ik (also: Chevak Cup’ik Eskimo .)
          • Chevak (Cevʼaq) Cup’ik (proper name: Cev’allrarmuit – “people of Chevak (Cevʼaq)” or simply as Cup’ik – “true / real person”, plural: Cup’it – “true / real people”.)
          • Nunivak (Nuniwar) Cup’ig (own name: Nuniwarmiut – “people of Nunivak (Nuniwar)” or simply as Cup’ig – “true / real person”, plural: Cupiit – “true / real people”)
      • Alutiiq (“Person of the Aleutians”, plural: Alutiit – “People of the Aleutians”, an adaptation of the name of the Russian Promyshlenniki for indigenous peoples of this region (Aleutians and Alutiit), original name: Sugpiaq (“true / real person”, Plural: Sugpiat – “true / real people”) inhabit South Central Alaska in two regional dialect groups and were culturally strongly influenced by the western Aleutians; the former name as Pacific Eskimo is perceived as derogatory – the name often used today as Pacific Gulf Yupik is also rejected because the northern Yup’ikor “Yupik-Eskimo” were among their traditional enemies.) The Alutiit / Sugpiat must not be confused with the ” Aleuts (Alëuts) ” living directly to the west .
        • Koniag Alutiiq or Koniag Sugpiag (own name: Koniagmiut / Kaniagmiut , live on the Alaska Peninsula (Aleut ian Peninsula) and Kodiak Archipelago with the two largest islands Kodiak Island (Qikertaq) and Afognak Island (Agw’aneq) ; today’s “Native Village of Afognak “,” Akhiok Tribal Council “,” Kaguyak Village Tribe “,” Native Village of Karluk “,” Native Village of Larsen Bay “,” Sun’aq Tribe of Kodiak “,” Alutiiq Tribe of Old Harbor “,” Native Village of Ouzinkie “,” Native Village of Port Lions “and” Tangirnaq Native Village “.)
        • Chugach Alutiiq or Chugach Sugpiaq (own name: Chugachigmiut , live on the Kenai Peninsula and east of this in Prince William Sound (Suungaaciq) on the south coast of Alaska – the earlier names as Chugach Eskimo, South Alaska Eskimo, Sugpiak Eskimo and Sugpiaq Eskimo are perceived by them as derogatory; today’s ” Native Village of Chenega (Caniqaq) “, ” Native Village of Eyak (Igya’aq) “, “Nanwalek IRA Council (English Bay)”, “Port Graham Village Council (Paluwik)”, “Qutekcak Native Tribe ( Seward / Qutalleq )”, ” Tatitlek IRA Council (Taatiilaaq) “, “Valdez Native Tribe (Suacit) “.)
    • Inuit (in Canada and Greenland) or Eskimo (in Alaska, USA) or “Eastern Eskimo”
      • Iñupiat (formerly: Inyupik – “true / real people”, singular: Iñupiaq – “true / real person”, also: Alaska Inuit )
      • Inuvialuit (“true / real people”, singular: Inuvialuk – “true / real person”, also Western Canadian Inuit )
      • Inuit (“people”, singular: Inuk – “person / human”, also: Eastern Canadian Inuit )
      • Kalaallit or Greenlander (singular: Kalaaleq , Inuit originally immigrated from Canada who settled on Kalaallit Nunaat – “Land of the Kalaallit” – today’s Greenland; Origin of name: “Kalaaleq” is probably a loan word from the Greenlandic language (Kalaallisut) (“Like a Greenlanders [speak] “) and is derived from” Skrælingar “, the name of the Grænlendingar ( Scandinavians who settled in Greenland ) for the indigenous people of North America and thus also Greenland, also: Greenland Inuit )
        • Inughuit (also: Inuhuit, Innughuit, Innugguit – “true / real people”, in Kalaallisut / Greenlandic: Avanersuarmiutut – “People of Avanersuaq (place in the most remote north / Northern Greenland) ” called, formerly: Arctic Highlanders , also: Smith Sound Inuit , Polar Inuit, Polar Eskimo , North Greenlanders , the last group to immigrate to Greenland in the 16th / 17th century, originally part of the “Copper Inuit (Inuinnait / Kitlinermiut)”, are therefore pejoratively referred to as “Inuit” by the Kalaallit / Greenlanders , the majority identify themselves as an ethnic group but also not as “Kalaallit / Greenlanders”.)
        • Tunumiit (“People of Tunu (Østgrønland) “, singular: Tunumiu – “Person of Tunu (Østgrønland)”, also: Inuit of Tunu , East Greenlanders )
          • Northeast Greenlanders (also: Northeast Greenland Inuit , about 1869/1870 extinct.)
          • Southeast Greenlanders (also: Southeast Greenland Inuit , now extinct)
        • Kitaamiut (“People of Kitaa (Vestgrønland) “, singular: Kitaamiu – “Person from Kitaa (Vestgrønland)”, West Greenlanders , today often simply referred to as “Kalaallit” because they form the most populous group and about 90% of the Kalaallit / Greenlanders speak their language – the Central West Greenlandic Kitaamiusut.)
          • Kujataamiut (“People of Kujalleq “, also: South Greenlanders )
          • Northwest Greenlanders

Native American in the South America

The indigenous peoples of South America are divided into lowland peoples and Andean peoples. The names (South American) Indians or Indios for all these peoples are widespread, but can be considered offensive by those with such names. Native peoples of South America are often divided into language families, such as Quechua, Aymara, Tupi or Mapuche, but members of these language families do not always see themselves as belonging together.

Native American in the South America
Native American in the South America. Photo credit: Scanned by Scanned by User:LA2 in October 2005 / Wikimedia Commons

The indigenous cultures of South America are very diverse, among other things due to the enormous differences in climate and landscape – and thus the realities of life – in a geographical area that stretches from the Caribbean coast to Tierra del Fuego and from the high plateau of the Andes to the mouth of the Amazon.

Cultural areaHabitat and similaritiesExample Ethnics and Nations
Around the CaribbeanTropical savannahs, wet and rainforests: mostly sedentary farming (corn, beans, pumpkins, cassava, potatoes); often chiefdoms , influences from the South and Central American high cultures, heterogeneous, striving for prestigeKuna, Emberá, Paez, Achagua, Chibcha, Ika, (Guahibo)
Central AndesAndean highland steppes: sedentary crop rotation – agriculture and irrigation terraces (potatoes, as well as enormous variety of crops), llama breeding; theocratic states, Inca tradition, Ayllu village structure, Pachamama, Spanish-ind.Quechua, Aymara, Kolla, Huanca, Atacameño
Patagoniadry, moderate open landscapes and temperate deciduous and coniferous forests of the Andes: semi-sedentary farming (maize, beans, potatoes), gathering (araucaria fruits) and hunting (guanaco and rhea, marine mammals), later cattle breeding (llama, cattle, horse); egalitarian hordes , former South American cavalry warriors, Bola.Mapuche, Picunche, Huilliche, Tehuelche, Puelche, (Het)
ChacoTropical dry forests and thorn savannah: semi-sedentary fruit collectors, later horse warriors, fishing, little shifting cultivation ; egalitarian groups or tribal societiesWichí, Guaycurú, Toba, Chiriguano, Ayoreo, Terena
LlanosInconsistent “ marginal groups” in retreat areas, nomadic or semi-nomadic hunters and gatherers until the beginning of the 20th century, rarely rudimentary agriculture or horticulture; egalitarian hordesMoist savannahs and monsoon forests: Wayapopihíwi, Otomaken, Achagua
Paranásubtropical wet forests and dry steppes: Mbyá, Bororo, Kaingang , Aché
Fire landtemperate coastal rainforests and Magellan tundra: Selk’nam, Yámana, Chonos, Qawasqar
Andes eastern edgetropical highland rainforest: slash and burn cultivation (maize, cassava, great variety) and hunting; egalitarian hordes, influence or hostility of the IncaShuar, Huaorani, Shipibo, Asháninka, Machiguenga,
Guyanamixed dry and moist tropical landscapes: semi-sedentary farming (cassava), hunting, fishing; Chiefs, influences of the two high culturesCaribs, Arawak, Waiwai , Ye’kuana, Yanomami, Waimiri
Amazoniatropical lowland rainforest: mostly semi-sedentary horticulture (papaya, guava, avocado), shifting cultivation (cassava), hunting, fishing and trade; mostly chiefdoms, frequent conflicts with neighboring groups, unity of nature / culture , intens. Ceremonial lifeTicuna, Munduruku, Cinta Larga, (Nambikwara), (Maku)
Eastern BrazilTropical savannahs: semi-sedentary slash-and-burn farming (cassava), collecting, hunting and fishing; Tribal societies, dialectical religionsXavante, Kayapó, Botokuden, Xerente, Xingu, (Tupi, Guaraní)

Famous Native American

Famous Native American
Famous Native Americans: 1) Phillip Martin, a Choctaw 2) Dia Molnar, a Navajo 3) Harvey Pratt, a Cheyenne 4) Jamie Oxendine, a Lumbee 5) Joe Shirley, a Navajo 6) Lori Piestewa, a Hopi 7) Robbie Robertson, a Mohawk 8) Mary Titla, an Apache 9) John Herrington, a Chickasaw.
Photo credit: Robfergusonjr / Wikimedia Commons

Famous Native American

Famous Native Americans:

1) Phillip Martin, a Choctaw

A Native American political leader, the democratically elected Tribal Chief of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. This federally recognized American Indian tribe has 8,300 enrolled members living on or near 30,000 acres (120 km²) of reservation land in east central Mississippi.

Martin had a 40-year record of service to the Tribal government, including 32 years as the Tribe’s principal elected official. Chief Martin left office in 2007 after the election of Miko Beasley Denson.

2) Dia Molnar, a Navajo

A Navajo woman, tells the history of the Navajo nation at a Native American story telling event November 15, 2008 at Offutt Air Force Base Operator. Molnar wore a traditional Navajo dress made by her aunt and traditional jewelry made by another Navajo member.

3) Harvey Pratt, a Cheyenne

is an American forensic artist and Native American artist, who has worked for over forty years in law enforcement, completing thousands of composite designs and hundreds of postmortem soft tissue reconstructions.

4) Jamie Oxendine, a Lumbee

A Native American of the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina, Author, Educator, Historian and Speaker. He has been an Adjunct Professor of Native American Studies at Bowling Green State University, Ohio State University, University of Toledo, Lourdes University, and served as the Native American Liaison & Education Consultant for Ohio University.

He has served on the Board of Trustees for the Ohio Humanities Council, Board of Trustees for the Fallen Timbers Battlefield Preservation Commission and Governor Appointee to the Ohio Historic Site Preservation Board. He has also sat on the ACCESS Grants Panel with the National Endowment For The Humanities.

5) Joe Shirley, a Navajo

Is a Navajo politician who is the only two-term President of the Navajo Nation. He served as president from 2003 to 2011. He lives in Chinle, Arizona, and is Tódích’íi’nii, born for Tábaahá.

6) Lori Piestewa, a Hopi

She was a United States Army soldier killed during the Iraq War. A member of the Quartermaster Corps, she died in the same Iraqi attack in which fellow soldiers Shoshana Johnson and Piestewa’s friend Jessica Lynch were injured.

A member of the Hopi tribe, Piestewa was the first Native American woman to die in combat while serving in the U.S. military and the first woman in the U.S. military killed in the Iraq War. Arizona’s Piestewa Peak is named in her honor.

7) Robbie Robertson, a Mohawk

Is a Canadian guitarist, singer and composer, best known for his membership in The Band. He was included in 59th place on Rolling Stone’s list of 100 Best Guitarists.

8) Mary Titla, an Apache

An American publisher, Native American youth advocate, journalist, former TV reporter (notably for KVOA in Tucson, where in 1987 she became the first Native American television journalist in Arizona, and later KPNX in Phoenix), and was a 2008 candidate for Arizona’s First Congressional District.

Titla is a self described moderate democrat. As an educator her personal vision is “Everyone involved in a child’s education must go above and beyond to ensure every student receives a world class education in a safe environment.” She is an enrolled member of the San Carlos Apache Tribe.

9) John Herrington, a Chickasaw

In April 1996 he was selected as an astronaut by NASA and for two years followed training at the Johnson Space Center after which he was qualified as a mission specialist.

He flew the Shuttle in the STS-113 mission which departed on November 24, 2002 and headed for the International Space Station during which Herrington made three spacewalks for a total of 19 hours and 55 minutes . He returned to Earth on December 7, 2002. he was the first Native American to fly into space.

Cultural areas | Amerindian cultural zones in North America, including the arctic zone of the Inuits

The territory inhabited by the North American Amerindians can be divided into eight zones or cultural areas, characterized by their habitat.

1. Southeast

It occupies the southeastern part of the United States of America (the current states of Florida , Georgia , North Carolina , South Carolina , Virginia , Louisiana , Alabama , Mississippi , Tennessee and part of Texas ). It is characterized by its high cultural development, highly influenced by Mexicans, since many live in cities and have a strongly stratified society. In this area, remains of highly developed autochthonous cultures such as Cahokia or the mound culture of the so-called Mound Builders have been found.. The tribes of this area are mainly of the Muskogi linguistic trunk ( Creek , Choctaw , Chickasaw , Seminole , Alibamu , Apalachee , Hitchiti ), Cherokee (of Iroquois language), Catawba , Waccamaw and tutelo of Sioux language , Caddo and other related groups such as the houma , natchez , tunica , ofo , chitimacha , biloxi, chackchiuma, tohome, mobile, chatot, ais , timucua , calusa tekesta, yamasee , cusabo and tacobega. Many of them would be massively transferred to Oklahoma in the mid- nineteenth century .

2. Southwest

It occupies the southwestern United States of America , the current states of New Mexico and part of Texas. Set in desert areas and on the banks of the Colorado River, it groups some 57 tribes. Archaeological remains of great cultural development such as Anasazi have also been found in this territory . They have a great cultural diversity, with some urban tribes ( Pueblo culture ), such as the Hopi , Holi , Zuñi , Acoma , Laguna , San Ildefonso Pueblo , Santa Clara and others; others were engaged in ranching, such as the Navajo; Others practiced prey, like the Apaches , and the rest practiced subsistence agriculture in the desert oases, like the Maricopa , Quechan , Pima , Pápago , Mojave , Seri and Tarahumara .

3. Great Plains

They occupy the central plains of the US and southern and southeastern Canada ( North Dakota , South Dakota , Nebraska , Kansas , Iowa , Montana , Oklahoma, and part of Texas ). The tribes in the area were dedicated to hunting ‘buffalo’ and lived in a typical dwelling called tipi , although those in the southern part (those of the Caddo , Hidatsa and Mandan languages ) had a developed agrarian culture. In this area inhabited most of the Sioux-speaking tribes (hidatsa , mandan , sioux , osage , ioway , omaha , otoe , missouria , quapaw , kansas ), some of the Algonquian language ( blackfoot , arapaho , cheyenne , atsina ) and others of the caddo language ( wichita , pawnee , arikara ) or na- dené (sarsi).

4. Altiplano

It occupies the area of ​​the highlands located in the current states of Nevada , Utah , Idaho and Wyoming . It is a semi-desert area, where most of the tribes are dedicated to the collection of roots and wild plants, although there are some with influence of the plains tribes ( ute , xoixon , bannock , nez percé , umatilla ). The others, such as the Paiute , Washo , Klamath , Modoc , are more influenced by the culture of the Californian tribes.

5. California

It occupies the current state of California . They are a multitude of tribes, of very varied and differentiated linguistic groups, culturally very characteristic (as shown by pottery and basketry), highly influenced by the culture of the Northwest. Among the most important tribes are the Pomo, Hupa, Miwok, Yurok, Karok, Yokut, Maidu, Wintun, Yuki, Yana and others.

6. Northwest

It occupies the states of Washington , Oregon , British Columbia and the coast of Alaska . They are characterized by making a living from fishing, having large boats, large houses, totem poles and the practice of potlatch , with urban and stratified societies. Among the best known are the Tlingit , Haida , Kwakiutl , Nootka , Tsimshian and Quileute .

7. Northeast

It occupies the coastal area from New England to Virginia and the Great Lakes ( Minnesota , Michigan and Wisconsin ). Brings together the tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy , the Hurons , the Winnebago of sioux language and most of Algonquian tribes (Narragansett, Pequot , wampanoag , nipmuc , lenape , Illiniwek , abenaki). Societies were characterized by having military leaders who achieved power through their prestige ( sagamore or sachem ). The most typical dwellings are the Algonquin wigwam and the Iroquois Big Houses. They lived from fishing, hunting and agriculture (the Iroquois) or wild rice (the Menominee ).

8. Subarctic

It occupies the interior of Canada from the end of the Yukon to Quebec and Newfoundland . Here there is a great difference between the western zone (of the Na-Dené language) and the eastern zone (of the Algonquian language , such as Cree and Chippewa). They lived by hunting in the forests divided into isolated bands or hunting groups, and their leaders had little political authority.

Sources: PinterPandai, Reader’s DigestMediumBritannica

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