Fri. Aug 5th, 2022
    Indigenous peoples

    Indigenous peoples by continent

    Although there is no globally accepted definition of the concept of indigenous peoples, proposed by José Martinez Cobo, special rapporteur (protractor) of the Working Group on Indigenous Peoples of the United Nations Subcommittee on Human Rights, in 1987, is now commonly used. It is based on three basic criteria:

    • Historical continuity of characteristics such as:
      • ancestral occupation or at least part of the current land.
      • common ancestor with the first inhabitants of this land.
      • culture in general or some of its manifestations.
      • language.
      • establish in a certain part of the country or in a certain region of the world;
      • other relevant factors.
    • Identify yourself as a real person.
    • For an individual, membership of an indigenous group, is claimed by the individual and the group to which he belongs.

    In the words of José Martínez Cobo;

    “By indigenous communities, peoples and peoples, we must understand those who, in terms of historical continuity with pre-invasion societies and with pre-colonial societies that developed in their territories, considered themselves to be different from other segments of society. who now dominate their territory or part of it. They are now a non-dominant segment of society and they are determined to preserve, develop and pass on to future generations their ancestral territory and their ethnic identity, which forms the basis for their continued existence as a people, according to their own culture. models, their social institutions and their legal system.

    This is a partial list of the world’s indigenous or aboriginal or native people, grouped by region and sub-region. Note that a particular group may warrant listing under more than one region, either because the group is distributed in more than one region (for example Inuit in North America and eastern Russia), or there may be some overlap of the regions themselves (i.e. the boundaries of each region are not clear, or some locations may commonly be associated with more than one region).

    1. Africa

    Central Africa
    • Pygmies
    • Twa (Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda)
    East Africa

    Acholis: Uganda
    Afars: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia
    Agews: Ethiopia
    Akishos: Ethiopia, Somalia
    Alurs: Uganda
    Ambos: Zambia
    Amharas: Ethiopia
    Ankoles: Uganda
    Anuaks: Ethiopia
    Antalotes: Comoros
    Aushis: Zambia
    Aweers: Kenya, Somalia
    Ayoups: Ethiopia
    Bagandas: Uganda
    Bahimas / Ankoles: Uganda, Rwanda
    Bagisus: Uganda
    Bagweres: Uganda
    Bakigas: Uganda
    Bakonjos: Uganda
    Basogas: Uganda
    Batoros: Uganda
    Bejas: Eritrea
    Bembas: Zambia
    Bertats: Ethiopia
    Betsileos: Madagascar
    Reviews: Eritrea
    Bisas: Zambia
    Boranas: Ethiopia
    Bunyoros: Uganda
    Caffres: Comoros
    Chaggas: Tanzania
    Chewas: Malawi
    Chikundas: Zambia
    Chokwes: Mozambique, Zambia
    Chopis: Mozambique
    Cishingas: Zambia
    Dassanetchs: Ethiopia
    Dorzés: Ethiopia
    Govas: Zambia
    Gumuz: Ethiopia
    Gouragués: Ethiopia
    Hadzabes: Tanzania
    Hamers: Ethiopia
    Hayas: Tanzania
    Hedarebs: Eritrea
    Hehes: Tanzania
    Hutus: Burundi, Rwanda
    Ilas: Zambia
    Inamwangas: Zambia
    Itesos: Uganda
    Iwas: Zambia
    Jebertis: Ethiopia
    Jopadholas: Uganda
    Kabendes: Zambia
    Kalendjins: Kenya
    Kambas: Kenya
    Kaonde: Zambia
    Karamojongs: Uganda
    Kichepos: Ethiopia
    Kikuyus: Kenya
    Kisiis: Kenya
    Kaws: Zambia
    Kunamas: Eritrea
    Kundas: Zambia
    Kwandis: Zambia
    Kwandus: Zambia
    Kwangwas: Zambia
    Lalas: Zambia
    Lambas: Zambia
    Langos: Uganda
    Lenjes: Zambia
    Leyas: Zambia
    Limas: Zambia
    Liyuwas: Zambia
    Lomwes: Malawi
    Lozis: Zambia
    Luanos: Zambia
    Luchazis: Zambia
    Lugbaras: Uganda
    Luhyas: Kenya
    Lumbus: Zambia
    Lundas: Zambia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola
    Lundwes: Zambia
    Lungus: Zambia
    Luos: Kenya, Tanzania
    Luvales: Zambia
    Maasai: Kenya, Tanzania
    Makoas: Comoros
    Makomas: Zambia
    Makondes: Mozambique
    Makuas: Mozambique
    Mambwes: Zambia
    Manyikas: Mozambique
    Mashashas: Zambia
    Mashis: Zambia
    Mbowes: Zambia
    Mbukushus: Zambia
    Mbumis: Zambia
    Mbundas: Zambia
    Mbwelas: Zambia
    Me’ens: Ethiopia
    Merinas: Madagascar
    Merus: Kenya
    Mukulus: Zambia
    Mulongas: Zambia
    Munyoyayas: Kenya
    Mursis: Ethiopia
    Naras: Eritrea
    Ndaus: Mozambique
    Ndembus: Zambia
    Ng’umbos: Zambia
    Ngondes: Malawi
    Ngonis: Malawi
    Ngunis: Mozambique
    Nkoyas: Zambia
    Nsengas: Zambia
    Nubas: Sudan
    Nubians: Egypt, Sudan
    Nuers: Ethiopia
    Nyakyusas: Tanzania
    Nyamwezis: Tanzania
    Nyangatoms: Ethiopia
    Nyanjas: Malawi, Zambia
    Nyengos: Zambia
    Nyihas: Zambia
    Ogieks: Kenya
    Oimatsahas: Comoros
    Oromos: Ethiopia
    Kimants: Ethiopia
    Rashaidas: Eritrea
    Rer Bares: Ethiopia
    Rundis: Uganda
    Rwandan: Uganda
    Sahos: Eritrea
    Sakalaves: Comoros
    Sebas: Zambia
    Sénas: Malawi, Mozambique
    Sengas: Zambia
    Sengwers: Kenya
    Shanganas: Mozambique
    Shanjos: Zambia
    Shanqellas: Ethiopia
    Shilas: Zambia
    Shonas: Mozambique
    Sidamas: Ethiopia
    Simaas: Zambia
    Somalis: Somalia
    Subiyas: Zambia
    Sukumas: Tanzania
    Suris: Ethiopia
    Swakas: Zambia
    Swahilis: Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique
    Tabwas: Zambia
    Tambos: Zambia
    Tigers: Eritrea
    Tigray-Tigrinya: Eritrea
    Tokas: Zambia
    Totelas: Zambia
    Tumbuka (people) Tumbukas: Malawi, Zambia
    Tirmas: Ethiopia
    Tongas: Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia
    Tutsis: Burundi, Rwanda
    Twas (Pygmies): Burundi, Rwanda, Zambia, Uganda
    Ungas: Zambia
    Wandyas: Zambia
    Wathas: Kenya
    Welaytas: Ethiopia
    Welega Oromos: Ethiopia
    Yaos: Malawi, Mozambique
    Yiakus: Kenya
    Yombes: Zambia
    Zays: Ethiopia
    Zulus: South Africa and Zimbabwe, Eswatini, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Tanzania

    North Africa

    Berbers

    Berber groups are found in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Canary Islands6 and can be classified according to several tribes, confederations or group.

    • Chleuh or Souassa (Souss Massa region)
    • Ait Bou Guemess
    • Kabyles (Algerian Center)
    • Chaouis (East Algerian)
    • Kel Ahagger
    • Kel Augh (Asbs)
    • Senaga
    • Tuareg
    North West Africa
    • Zenetes
    • Chenouis
    • Rifains
    • Masmoudas
    • Ghomaras
    • Jbala
    • Sanhadja
    • Zayanes

    also the Copts who are the descendants of the ancient Egyptians in Egypt

    Saharan zone
    • Bedja (Sudan)
    • Tuaregs (Sahara and Sahel)
    • Guanches (Canary Islands) (Extinct)
    Southern Africa

    Without: Kalahari Desert, Botswana / Namibia
    Khoïkhois: South Africa
    Namaquas: South Africa
    ǃXóõ Botswana, Namibia
    Glui-Gllna, Kalahari

    West Africa

    Sénoufo: Ivory Coast
    Bakas: Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Gabon, and Central African Republic
    Balengues: Equatorial Guinea
    Bassa: Cameroon
    Bengas: Equatorial Guinea
    Beti-Pahuins: Equatorial Guinea
    Bubis: Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea
    Bujebas: Equatorial Guinea
    Combe or Ndowe: Equatorial Guinea
    Diolas: Ivory Coast
    Dualas: Cameroon
    Krou: Ivory Coast
    Mands: Ivory Coast, Guinea, Mali, Senegal
    Ogonis: Niger
    Tuaregs: Sahel
    Toubous: Sahara
    Wolofs: Senegal

    2. North America

    The term North American Indians, or North American Indians, designates the first occupants of the continent of North America (excluding Mesoamerica), and their descendants.

    Mexico

    The main indigenous peoples in Mexico:

    Mayas
    Tzeltal
    Tzotzil
    Ch’ol
    Tojol-ab’al
    Zoques
    Chuj
    Q’anjob’al
    Mam
    Jakalteco
    Motozintlecos
    Cakchiquel
    Lacandons

    United States

    The main indigenous peoples in the region of the present-day United States:

    Alaskan Natives
    Indigenous Peoples of California
    Cherokees (south-east)
    Lenapes (northeast)
    Screams
    Ojibwés (great plains)
    Cheyennes (great plains)
    Comanches (great plains)
    Omahas (great plains)
    Sioux (great plains)
    Navajo (southwest)
    Apaches (southwest)
    Pueblos (southwest)
    Mohave (California)

    Native American Heritage : culture, ritual and ceremony, belief, custom and symbol

    Canada

    Major Indigenous Peoples of Canada:

    Screams
    Ojibway
    Hurons-Wendats (eastern forests)
    Iroquois (eastern forests)
    Inuit
    Abenaki
    Algonquins (eastern forests)
    Attikameks
    Maliseet
    Mi’kmaq
    Innu (Montagnais)
    Naskapi
    Wyandot (Hurons-Wendats)
    Mohawks
    Kwakwaka’wakw (west coast)
    Salish (West Coast Canada and USA)

    Indigenous peoples by continent
    1. Africa
    Central Africa
    Pygmies
    Twa (Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda)
    East Africa
    Acholis: Uganda
    Afars: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia
    Agews: Ethiopia
    Akishos: Ethiopia, Somalia
    Alurs: Uganda
    Ambos: Zambia
    Amharas: Ethiopia
    Ankoles: Uganda
    Anuaks: Ethiopia
    Antalotes: Comoros
    Aushis: Zambia
    Aweers: Kenya, Somalia
    Ayoups: Ethiopia
    Bagandas: Uganda
    Bahimas / Ankoles: Uganda, Rwanda
    Bagisus: Uganda
    Bagweres: Uganda
    Bakigas: Uganda
    Bakonjos: Uganda
    Basogas: Uganda
    Batoros: Uganda
    Bejas: Eritrea
    Bembas: Zambia
    Bertats: Ethiopia
    Betsileos: Madagascar
    Reviews: Eritrea
    Bisas: Zambia
    Boranas: Ethiopia
    Bunyoros: Uganda
    Caffres: Comoros
    Chaggas: Tanzania
    Chewas: Malawi
    Chikundas: Zambia
    Chokwes: Mozambique, Zambia
    Chopis: Mozambique
    Cishingas: Zambia
    Dassanetchs: Ethiopia
    Dorzés: Ethiopia
    Govas: Zambia
    Gumuz: Ethiopia
    Gouragués: Ethiopia
    Hadzabes: Tanzania
    Hamers: Ethiopia
    Hayas: Tanzania
    Hedarebs: Eritrea
    Hehes: Tanzania
    Hutus: Burundi, Rwanda
    Ilas: Zambia
    Inamwangas: Zambia
    Itesos: Uganda
    Iwas: Zambia
    Jebertis: Ethiopia
    Jopadholas: Uganda
    Kabendes: Zambia
    Kalendjins: Kenya
    Kambas: Kenya
    Kaonde: Zambia
    Karamojongs: Uganda
    Kichepos: Ethiopia
    Kikuyus: Kenya
    Kisiis: Kenya
    Kaws: Zambia
    Kunamas: Eritrea
    Kundas: Zambia
    Kwandis: Zambia
    Kwandus: Zambia
    Kwangwas: Zambia
    Lalas: Zambia
    Lambas: Zambia
    Langos: Uganda
    Lenjes: Zambia
    Leyas: Zambia
    Limas: Zambia
    Liyuwas: Zambia
    Lomwes: Malawi
    Lozis: Zambia
    Luanos: Zambia
    Luchazis: Zambia
    Lugbaras: Uganda
    Luhyas: Kenya
    Lumbus: Zambia
    Lundas: Zambia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola
    Lundwes: Zambia
    Lungus: Zambia
    Luos: Kenya, Tanzania
    Luvales: Zambia
    Maasai: Kenya, Tanzania
    Makoas: Comoros
    Makomas: Zambia
    Makondes: Mozambique
    Makuas: Mozambique
    Mambwes: Zambia
    Manyikas: Mozambique
    Mashashas: Zambia
    Mashis: Zambia
    Mbowes: Zambia
    Mbukushus: Zambia
    Mbumis: Zambia
    Mbundas: Zambia
    Mbwelas: Zambia
    Me’ens: Ethiopia
    Merinas: Madagascar
    Merus: Kenya
    Mukulus: Zambia
    Mulongas: Zambia
    Munyoyayas: Kenya
    Mursis: Ethiopia
    Naras: Eritrea
    Ndaus: Mozambique
    Ndembus: Zambia
    Ng’umbos: Zambia
    Ngondes: Malawi
    Ngonis: Malawi
    Ngunis: Mozambique
    Nkoyas: Zambia
    Nsengas: Zambia
    Nubas: Sudan
    Nubians: Egypt, Sudan
    Nuers: Ethiopia
    Nyakyusas: Tanzania
    Nyamwezis: Tanzania
    Nyangatoms: Ethiopia
    Nyanjas: Malawi, Zambia
    Nyengos: Zambia
    Nyihas: Zambia
    Ogieks: Kenya
    Oimatsahas: Comoros
    Oromos: Ethiopia
    Kimants: Ethiopia
    Rashaidas: Eritrea
    Rer Bares: Ethiopia
    Rundis: Uganda
    Rwandan: Uganda
    Sahos: Eritrea
    Sakalaves: Comoros
    Sebas: Zambia
    Sénas: Malawi, Mozambique
    Sengas: Zambia
    Sengwers: Kenya
    Shanganas: Mozambique
    Shanjos: Zambia
    Shanqellas: Ethiopia
    Shilas: Zambia
    Shonas: Mozambique
    Sidamas: Ethiopia
    Simaas: Zambia
    Somalis: Somalia
    Subiyas: Zambia
    Sukumas: Tanzania
    Suris: Ethiopia
    Swakas: Zambia
    Swahilis: Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique
    Tabwas: Zambia
    Tambos: Zambia
    Tigers: Eritrea
    Tigray-Tigrinya: Eritrea
    Tokas: Zambia
    Totelas: Zambia
    Tumbuka (people) Tumbukas: Malawi, Zambia
    Tirmas: Ethiopia
    Tongas: Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia
    Tutsis: Burundi, Rwanda
    Twas (Pygmies): Burundi, Rwanda, Zambia, Uganda
    Ungas: Zambia
    Wandyas: Zambia
    Wathas: Kenya
    Welaytas: Ethiopia
    Welega Oromos: Ethiopia
    Yaos: Malawi, Mozambique
    Yiakus: Kenya
    Yombes: Zambia
    Zays: Ethiopia
    Zulus: South Africa and Zimbabwe, Eswatini, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Tanzania

    North Africa

    Berbers

    Berber groups are found in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Canary Islands6 and can be classified according to several tribes, confederations or group.

    Chleuh or Souassa (Souss Massa region)
    Ait Bou Guemess
    Kabyles (Algerian Center)
    Chaouis (East Algerian)
    Kel Ahagger
    Kel Augh (Asbs)
    Senaga
    Tuareg
    North West Africa
    Zenetes
    Chenouis
    Rifains
    Masmoudas
    Ghomaras
    Jbala
    Sanhadja
    Zayanes
    also the Copts who are the descendants of the ancient Egyptians in Egypt

    Saharan zone

    Bedja (Sudan)
    Tuaregs (Sahara and Sahel)
    Guanches (Canary Islands) (Extinct)
    Southern Africa
    Without: Kalahari Desert, Botswana / Namibia
    Khoïkhois: South Africa
    Namaquas: South Africa
    ǃXóõ Botswana, Namibia
    Glui-Gllna, Kalahari

    West Africa

    Sénoufo: Ivory Coast
    Bakas: Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Gabon, and Central African Republic
    Balengues: Equatorial Guinea
    Bassa: Cameroon
    Bengas: Equatorial Guinea
    Beti-Pahuins: Equatorial Guinea
    Bubis: Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea
    Bujebas: Equatorial Guinea
    Combe or Ndowe: Equatorial Guinea
    Diolas: Ivory Coast
    Dualas: Cameroon
    Krou: Ivory Coast
    Mands: Ivory Coast, Guinea, Mali, Senegal
    Ogonis: Niger
    Tuaregs: Sahel
    Toubous: Sahara
    Wolofs: Senegal

    2. North America

    The term North American Indians, or North American Indians, designates the first occupants of the continent of North America (excluding Mesoamerica), and their descendants.

    Mexico

    The main indigenous peoples in Mexico:

    Mayas
    Tzeltal
    Tzotzil
    Ch’ol
    Tojol-ab’al
    Zoques
    Chuj
    Q’anjob’al
    Mam
    Jakalteco
    Motozintlecos
    Cakchiquel
    Lacandons

    United States

    The main indigenous peoples in the region of the present-day United States:

    Alaskan Natives
    Indigenous Peoples of California
    Cherokees (south-east)
    Lenapes (northeast)
    Cris
    Ojibwés (great plains)
    Cheyennes (great plains)
    Comanches (great plains)
    Omahas (great plains)
    Sioux (great plains)
    Navajo (southwest)
    Apaches (southwest)
    Pueblos (southwest)
    Mohave (California)

    Canada

    Major Indigenous Peoples of Canada:

    Cris
    Ojibway
    Hurons-Wendats (eastern forests)
    Iroquois (eastern forests)
    Inuit
    Abenaki
    Algonquins (eastern forests)
    Attikameks
    Maliseet
    Mi’kmaq
    Innu (Montagnais)
    Naskapi
    Wyandot (Hurons-Wendats)
    Mohawks
    Kwakwaka’wakw (west coast)
    Salish (West Coast Canada and USA)

    Central America

    Belize

    • Garifunas
    • Mayas

    Costa Rica

    • Indigenous peoples of Costa Rica
    • Cabecares
    • Bribris

    El Salvador

    • Nahuas
    • Pipils

    Guatemala

    • Caribbean / Kalinago
    • Garifunas

    Honduras

    • Lenca

    Nicaragua

    • Mosquitos
    • Ramas
    • Sumos

    Panama

    • Kuna
    Caribbean (West Indies)

    Tainos
    Kali’na
    Ciboneys
    Ciguayo: Hispaniola
    Lucaya: Cuba, Bahamas
    Macorix: Hispaniola
    Guanajatabey or Guanahabibes: western Cuba
    Caribbean / Kalinago
    Kali’na

    South America

    The South American Indians are the Amerindians populating South America, that is to say the first occupants of South America and their descendants.

    Asháninkas: Peru
    Awá: Eastern Amazon rainforest, Brazil
    Awá: Colombia, Ecuador
    Aymaras: Peru / Bolivia / Chile
    Ayoreo: Chaco, Paraguay / Bolivia
    Bora: Colombia / Peru
    Bororo: Mato Grosso, Brazil
    Charrúas: Entre Ríos, Argentina; Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Uruguay
    Chayahuita: Loreto, Peru
    Cocama-cocamilla: Loreto, Peru
    Embera: Colombia / Panama
    Enxet: Paraguay
    Jivaroan: Loreto and San Martín, Peru
    Guaranis: Paraguay, Brazil, Bolivia and Argentina
    Karajá: Brazil
    Kayapo: Brazil
    Kogis or Koguis: Colombia – Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta
    Korubu: Brazil
    Macuxi: Brazil / Guyana
    Mapuches: Chile / Argentina
    Matis: Brazil / Peru
    Matsés: Brazil / Peru
    Nukak: Colombia
    Nasa: Colombia
    Patagons: Chile / Argentina, Selknam, Puelches, Tehuelches, Alakaluf, Chonos, Mánekenk, Yamanas
    Quechuas: Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador
    Secoya: Loreto, Peru / Ecuador
    Tapirapé: Brazil / Peru / Colombia
    Tayronas or Taironas: Colombia – Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta: Arhuaco (or Ika) – Wiwa – Kogi – Kankuamo [archive]
    Tucano: Colombia
    Tupis: Paraguay, Brazil, Bolivia, Peru and Argentina
    Urarina: Chambira, Loreto Peru
    U’wa: Colombia
    Yora: Amazon rainforest, Peru
    Wichí: Chaco, Argentina / Bolivia
    Warao: Venezuela, Orinoco.
    Wayuu: Venezuela / Colombia
    Yanomami: Brazil / Venezuela
    The Amerindians of Guyana.

    3. Asia

    Central Asia

    Indigenous peoples of the Russian Federation.
    Hezhen and Nanaïs
    Kazakhs
    Kyrgyz
    Neguidales
    Nivkhes
    Oroks
    Oroqen
    Orotches
    Oudihes
    Oultches
    Pashtuns

    North Asia

    Aleut and Alioutors
    Altaians
    Arines
    Assanes
    Bargas
    Buryats
    Chors
    Dolganes
    Enets
    Eskimos
    Évènes (formerly Lamoutes)
    Evenks (formerly Toungouses)
    Yakuts or Sakha
    Itelmènes
    Kamasses
    Karagassus
    Kereks
    Ketes
    Khakasses
    Khantys
    Koriaks
    Kottes
    Kumandines
    Mansis
    Mators
    Nenets
    Nganassanes
    Poumpokoles
    Selkoupes
    Soiotes
    Tatars
    Tazs
    Taiga
    Chelkanes
    Chukchi
    Tchoulymes
    Chuvans
    Telenguite
    Teleuts
    Tofalars
    Toubalars
    Touvains
    Youges
    Youkaguirs or Youkaguirs
    Siberian Yupiks

    East Asia

    Ainu: Hokkaidō (Japan) and Sakhalin (Russia)
    Ryukyuans

    Taiwan

    Amis
    Atayal
    Bunun
    Kavalan
    Paiwan
    Puyuma
    Rukai
    Seizure
    Da’o
    Thao
    Tsou
    Truku
    Seedeq
    Sakizaya
    Hla’alua
    Kanakanavu

    South East Asia

    Akhas: from Thailand, Laos, Burma
    Bajaus: Borneo and Sulu (Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines
    Dayak: from Borneo
    Degars: from Vietnam
    Hmong: from Thailand, Burma and Laos
    Igorots: Cordillera (Luzon) from Luzon in the Philippines
    Karens: Burma and Thailand
    Khmer Krom: Vietnam
    Lahus: Thailand, Burma, Laos and Yunnan
    Lisus: Burma, Thailand, Arunachal Pradesh, India and Yunnan and Sichuan, China
    Lumads: Mindanao Philippines
    Mangyans: Mindoro Philippines
    Negritos: includes the Semang of the Malay Peninsula, Aeta of Luzon, Ati of Panay, Mani of Thailand, and the Andaman Islands.
    Orang Asli: Malaysia Semang (Negrito), Senoi, and Proto-Malay
    Palawan tribes: Palawan, Philippines
    Penans: Sarawak, Malaysia

    South Asia
    • Adivasis collective term for many indigenous peoples in India
      • Kisans: Orissa Sundergarh, India
      • Andamanese: Andaman Islands, India
      • Jarawas: Andaman Islands
      • Onges: Andaman Islands
      • Jangils: Rutland Island, Andaman Islands
      • Sentinels: North Sentinel Island, Andaman Islands
    • Nicobarais: Nicobar, India
    • Shompens: Nicobar, India
    • Veddas: Sri Lanka
    • Nagas: North East India
    • Kalashs: Pakistan
    • Khasi-Jaintias: North East India
    • Giraavarus: Maldives
    West Asia

    Alevis
    Armenians (Western Armenia)
    Assyrians
    Marsh Arabs
    Bedouin of the Negev
    Copts
    Doms
    Druze
    Georgians
    Pashtuns
    Kurds
    Hebrews
    Yazidis
    Arab tribes

    4. Europe

    An indigenous person is “originally from the country in which he or she lives, whose ancestors lived in this country” 16. Thus, the majority of European populations are made up of indigenous peoples who are the foundations of the culture and language of each nation. There are therefore indigenous peoples, and in each of these there are “indigenous minorities” 17. For France, for example, this is the case of the Bretons, a people descended from the Gallo-Roman natives of Armorica and the Brittonic immigration of the third and fourth century, or even the Basques, for their part from the Aquitaine peoples who were already present alongside the Gallic tribes before the Roman invasion. In the case of the majority indigenous peoples, all the nations of Europe are made up of them. Thus, all Europeans are predominantly indigenous to their country. This is the case for France, which has an indigenous population of 90%. There are therefore many aboriginal French and foreign French. The first are descendants of several different ethnic groups, first of all the Celtic peoples who developed from present-day Austria to the tip of Brittany by settling in the center-west of Spain, all over Great Britain, in Ireland as well as the southern part of Germany. The Celts form the basis of the current British, Irish and French populations, because it must be remembered that the ancient population of current French territory was around 5 to 10 million people according to historians. It should also be noted that genetic studies of haplogroups of different European individuals as well as the generalization of DNA tests have made it possible to better trace human migrations18. Thus we know that there were few genetic variations between the ancient populations of France and the populations of the Middle Ages19, until the Industrial Revolution when foreign labor was imported into the territory. The same goes for most other European nations, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Hungary, Austria, Ireland, Scotland, etc.

    Germany

    The Sorbs in Lusatia

    Balkans

    The Albanians, Greeks and Wallachians of the Balkans.

    France

    Bretons
    Alsatians
    Basques
    Corsican
    Occitans

    Italy

    The Sardinians

    Scandinavia

    The Sámi people live in the north of four countries, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia on the Kola Peninsula. The Sami have been targeted by discriminatory assimilation policies. Norway set up a Truth and Reconciliation Commission in 2018 to shed light on the consequences of the forced Norwegianization of its indigenous peoples, modeled on Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission (which issued its findings in 2015) ; it was emulated by Finland in 2019 and Sweden in 2020.

    Swiss

    The Romansh

    5. Oceania

    Australia

    Australian Aborigines
    Indigenous people of the Torres Strait

    Near Oceania

    Papuans: over 250 distinct tribes including the Wopkaimin
    the Austronesians who extend to distant Oceania
    Kanak: represent 40% of the Caledonian population. The Kanak people are made up of 341 tribes including 203 in the North Province, 87 in the Loyalty Islands and 51 in the South Province.

    Distant oceania (Remote Oceania)

    Chuukese: Island of Chuuk – Federated States of Micronesia
    Kosraen: Island of Kosrae – Federated States of Micronesia
    Pohnpeiian: Island of Pohnpei – Federated States of Micronesia
    Yapais: Yap Islands – Federated States of Micronesia
    Mortlockese: Chuuk Island Pohnpei Island
    Chamorros: Guam, Northern Mariana Islands

    Polynesia

    Kanaka Maoli: Hawaii
    Maohis: Tahiti, Central and Eastern Polynesia
    Māoris: Aotearoa
    Morioris: Chatham Islands
    Rarotongans: Rarotonga
    Samoans: Samoa
    Fijians: Fiji
    Tongans: Tonga
    Haumakas then Rapanuis: Easter Island
    Uvéens: Wallis
    Futunians: Futuna
    The Kanaks of New Caledonia

    Did you know ?

    Indigenous peoples represent 476 million people in 90 countries.
    Over 86% of indigenous people work in the informal economy, compared to 66% of non-indigenous people.
    Indigenous peoples are nearly three times more exposed to extreme poverty than other peoples.
    Globally, 47% of working indigenous populations have no formal education, compared with 17% of non-indigenous people. This gap is even greater among women.

    Sources: PinterPandai, United Nations (UN), Amnesty International

    Photo credit: United Nations