Levels of Autonomous Car (Self-driving Vehicle)
Levels of autonomous car is from 0 to 5:
Before going any further, it should be clarified that the levels in question apply to autonomous driving systems which are activated at all times during the journey and not simply included in the vehicle. Here are 0-5 levels of autonomous car:
Level 0 – No autonomy
The human behind the wheel controls the direction, the brakes and the acceleration by managing his movements on the road and in traffic.
Level 1 – Driving assistance
Under certain conditions, the vehicle controls direction or speed, but not both at the same time, while the driver takes care of all other driving tasks. He is fully responsible for keeping track of what is happening on the road and taking over when the system reaches its limit. A good example is adaptafive cruise control.
Level 2 – Partial autonomy
Here the vehicle can accelerate, brake and steer under certain circumstances. The driver must perform tactical maneuvers, such as reacting to signs and traffic, changing lanes and watching out for potential hazards. He may also need to keep one hand on the wheel. Examples: Audi’s Traffic Jam Aid, Cadillac’s Super Cruise System, Nissan’s ProPILOT Assistance, and Volvo’s Semi-Autopilot.
Level 3 – Conditional autonomy
The vehicle can, under suitable conditions, take care of the majority of driving-related tasks, including monitoring the immediate environment. The system will ask the driver to intervene when they encounter an impractical scenario, which means that the person behind the wheel still needs to pay some attention and be ready to regain control of the vehicle at any time. This is the highest level of autonomy available today, for example with the new 2019 Audi A8 (sold in Europe, but later this year in Canada).
Level 4 – High autonomy
There is always a steering wheel and pedals, but no human action or supervision is required, except in more complex cases such as inclement weather or an unusual environment. The driver can intervene in the streets and then become a simple passage on the motorway. The Hyundai NEXO has just successfully completed a test as a level 4 autonomous vehicle.
Level 5 – Full autonomy
It’s the real driverless car that can run fully automatically on any road and under any conditions a human might negotiate. There is no steering wheel or pedals. All you need to do is specify a destination for the vehicle, either through the on-board display or by voice command.
Photo credit: Pxhere