Biology Studies and Branches (Fields of Biology)

Biology studies


Biology is the science of living things. It covers part of the natural sciences and the natural history of living beings. This word is coming from the Greek: bios “life” and logos, “speech”.

With life in many forms and at very different scales, biology extends from the molecular level, to that of the cell, then the organism, to the level of the population and the ecosystem.

Main branch of Biology studies

Biology is a branch of science that deals with living organisms and their vital processes. Biology encompasses diverse fields, for example botany, conservation, ecology, evolution, genetics, marine biology, medicine, microbiology, molecular biology, physiology and zoology.

Fields of Biology Studies and Explanations

Below are the various branches of biology (or divisions of biology) and their related definitions and sources.

1ScienceOrganized form of Knowledge or systematic knowledge i.e. knowledge through process.
2BiologyThe branch of science which deals with the study of living beings.
3ZoologyThe branch of science which deals with the study of animals.
4MorphologyThe branch of science which deals with the study of total general structures and forms including shape, size and appearance.
5AnatomyThe branch of science which deals with the study of internal structures after cutting or dissection.
6HistologyThe branch of science which deals with the study of tissue i.e. microscopic anatomy.
7CytologyThe branch of science which deals with the study of cells and their organelles.
8AcariologyStudy of tics and mites.
9ActinobiologyThe branch of science which deals with the study of radiation effects on organism.
10AerobiologyStudy of Flying organisms.
11AgroforestryThis branch deals with form of land used on which herbaceous crops and trees crops are cultivated
12AgronomyScience which deals with the crop plants
13AgrostologyStudy of grasses.
14AngiologyScience which deals with the study of blood vascular system.
15AnthologyStudy of flowers.
16AnthropologyStudy of apes and man.
17ApicultureStudy of bee keeping
18AraneologyStudy of spiders.
19ArthrologyStudy of joints.
20AschelitinthologyStudy of round worms
21BacteriologyStudy of bacteria.
22BatrachologyStudy of frog.
23BiochemistryBranch of science which deals with the study of chemical reactions in relations to life activities.
24BiometricsStatistical analysis of different results of biological experiments.
25BiotechnologyUse of biological organisms in commercial processes for producing fine chemicals such as drugs, vaccines and harmones etc.  on a large scale and at reasonable cost.
26BryologyStudy of Bryophytes.
27CarcinologyStudy of crabs and crustaceans
28CardiologyStudy of heart.
29ChondriologyStudy of Cartilage.
30ChromatologyStudy of Pigments.
31CnidologyStudy of Coelenterata (coral animals, true jellies, sea anemones, sea pens, and their allies)
32ConchologyStudy of shells.
33CraniologyStudy of skulls.
34CryobiologyStudy of effects on life at very lower temperature.
35DendrologyStudy of shrubs and trees
36DermatologyStudy of skin
37EcobiologyStudy of problems of existence of life in outer space
38EcologyStudy of relationship between organism and environment
39 EmbryologyStudy of embryo i.e. developmental stages after fertilization or birth of young ones.
40EndocrinologyStudy of endocrine glands and their secretions
41EntomologyStudy of insects
42EnzymologyStudy of enzymes
43EthnologyStudy of man-kinds (human and social sciences: it relates to anthropology and is related to sociology).
44EthologyStudy of conditions of animals or behavior of animals, in a natural contest
45EtiologyStudy of diseases (causes and factors of a disease).
46EugenicsStudy of improvement of human race by applying laws of heredity. It applied before birth. Eugenics is related with future generation.
47EuphenicsStudy of improvement of human race by drug treatment or gene engineering i.e. medical engineering of genetic disorder.
48EuthenicsStudy of improvement of human race by improving environment. It applied after birth and is related with present generation.
49EvolutionThe branch of science which deals with the study of origin of new from old i.e. origin, variation, inter-relationship between organisms of past and present days.
50ExobiologySpace biology is also known as exobiology
51FloricultureStudy of flower yielding plants
52GeneticsStudy of heredity and variations
53GerontologyStudy of growing old
54GynaecologyStudy of female reproductive organs
55HaematologyStudy of blood
56HelminthologyStudy of helminthes
57HepatologyStudy of liver
58HerpetologyStudy of lizards and other reptiles
59HypnologyStudy which deals with sleep
60HistochemistryStudy of chemical nature of tissues
61HorticultureStudy of flowering and fruits plants
62IchnologyStudy of fossil footprints
63ImmunologyStudy of resistance of organisms against infection
64KalologyStudy of sensory or sensari-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste
65KaryologyStudy of nucleus
66LepidopterologyStudy of moths and butterflies
67LichenologyStudy of lichens
68LimnologyStudy of fresh water lakes, ponds and streams in relation with plants and animals
69MalacologyStudy of mollusks
70MammologyStudy of mammals
71MastologyStudy of breasts
72MelanologyStudy of pigments
73Molecular BiologyStudy of life sciences on molecular level (i.e. RNA and DNA level)
74MycologyStudy of fungi
75MyrmecologyStudy of ants
76NeonatologyStudy of the new-born up to 1 month of age
77NephrologyStudy of kidney
78NeurologyStudy of nervous system
79NidologyStudy of nests of birds
80NosologyStudy of classification’s diseases
81OdontologyStudy of teeth and gums
82OlericultureStudy of vegetable yielding plants
83OncologyStudy of cancer
84OneirologyStudy of dreams
85OntogenyStudy of embryonic history
86OologyStudy of egg of birds
87OphthalmologyStudy of eyes
88OrganocologyStudy of development of organs under embryology
89OrganologyStudy of organs
90OrnithologyStudy of birds
91OsteologyStudy of bones
92OtorhinolaryngologyStudy of ear, nose and throat
93PaedologyStudy of larval stages
94PalaezoologyStudy of fossils and their distribution in time.
95PalaeozoologyStudy of fossils of animals
96PalynologyStudy of pollen grains in relation to taxonomy and evolution
97ParasitologyStudy of parasites
98PathologyStudy of various diseases in human beings
99ParazoologyStudy of poifera (sponges)
100PedologyStudy of soils
101PharmacognosyBranch of science dealing with the medicinal plants
102PharmacologyStudy of synthesis and effect of medicines on organisms
103PhenologyStudy of organisms as affected by seasonal climates e.g. of bird migration, opening of flowers etc.
104PhrenologyStudy of mental faculties of brain including feelings
105Phycology (algology)Study of algae
106PhylogenyStudy of evolutionary history
107PhysiologyStudy of functions of various parts within the organisms
108PiscicultureStudy of rearing of fishes
109PlatyhelminthologyStudy of flat worms
110PomologyStudy of fruits
111PoultryStudy which deals with keepings of foul
112ProctologyStudy of hind gut including rectum and anus
113ProtistologyStudy of protests. Its field of study overlaps with more traditional disciplines of algology, mycology and protozoology
114PteridologyStudy of pteridophytes
115RainologyStudy of nose and olfactory organs
116SaurologyStudy of lizards
117SericultureSilk industry concerned with culture of silk moth and pupa
118SerologyStudy of serum; interaction of antigens and antibodies in the blood
119Sepentology (Ophiology)Study of snakes
120SilvicultureStudy of development of forests
121SitologyStudy of dietetics
122SpeciologyStudy of species
123SpermologyStudy of seeds
124SplanchnologyStudy of visceral organs
125StomatologyStudy of forget including buccal cavity and stomach
126SynecologyStudy of bony joints and ligaments
127Taxi dermatologyStudy of skin and stuffing
128TaxonomyThe breach of science which deals with the study of classification of organisms
129TeratologyStudy of foetal malformations
130TorpedologyStudy of skates and rays
131ToxicologyStudy of narcotics and the influence of narcotics on various organisms
132TraumatologyStudy of wounds and turnover
133TrichologyStudy of hair
134TrophologyStudy of nutrition
135UrobiologyStudy which deals with preservation of deals bodies in liquids by chemicals
136UrologyStudy of wine including diseases and the abnormalities of uninary and urino-genital tract
137VirologyStudy of virus
138ZoogeographyThe branch of science which deals with the study of distribution of animals on earth.
139BiophysicsStudy of physical aspects of living organisms
140CytogeneticsStudy of cytological basis of inheritance
141CtetologyStudy of acquired characteristics of organisms
142IchthyologyStudy of fish and it’s culture
143KinesiologyStudy of muscle movements
144PhytogeographyStudy of plants distribution on earth
145PalaeobotanyStudy of distribution and characteristics of fossils
146PsychobiologyStudy of behavioural aspects of animals
147SarcologyStudy of muscles
148SyndesmologyStudy of bone joints and ligaments
149TectologyStudy of structural organization of body
150ZoophytologyStudy of drifting micro-organisms such as diatoms.

Branches and career options

Biology is an area of science with numerous subdisciplines that are concerned with all aspects of life, in fact all aspects of modern human life. That said, there are countless career options, ranging from basic science to industrial or agricultural applications. These are the main branches of biology:

  • Anatomy – the study of organisms’ structures
    • Comparative anatomy – the study of evolution of species through similarities and differences in their anatomy
    • Histology – the study of tissues, a microscopic branch of anatomy
  • Astrobiology (also known as exobiology, exopaleontology, and bioastronomy) – the study of evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe
  • Biochemistry – the study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level
  • Biological engineering – the attempt to create products inspired by biological systems or to modify and interact with the biological systems
  • Biogeography – the study of the distribution of species spatially and temporally
  • Bioinformatics – the use of information technology for the study, collection, and storage of genomic and other biological data
  • Biolinguistics – the study of the biology and evolution of language
  • Biomechanics – the study of the mechanics of living beings
  • Biomedical research – the study of health and disease
  • Biophysics – the study of biological processes by applying the theories and methods traditionally employed in the physical sciences
  • Biotechnology – the study of the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology
    • Synthetic biology – research integrating biology and engineering; construction of biological functions not found in nature
  • Botany – the study of plants
    • Phycology – the scientific study of algae
    • Plant physiology – concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants
    • Astrobotany – the study of plants in space
  • Cell biology – the study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell
  • Chronobiology – the study of periodic events in living systems
  • Cognitive biology – the study of cognition
  • Conservation biology – the study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife
  • Cryobiology – the study of the effects of lower than normally preferred temperatures on living beings
  • Developmental biology – the study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure
    • Embryology – the study of the development of the embryo (from fecundation to birth)
    • Gerontology – the study of ageing processes
  • Ecology – the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment
  • Evolutionary biology – the study of the origin and descent of species over time
  • Genetics – the study of genes and heredity
    • Genomics – the study of genomes
    • Epigenetics – the study of heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence
  • Immunology – the study of the immune system
  • Marine biology (or biological oceanography) – the study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings
  • Microbiology – the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things
    • Bacteriology – the study of bacteria
    • Mycology – the study of fungi
    • Parasitology – the study of parasites and parasitism
    • Virology – the study of viruses and some other virus-like agents
  • Molecular biology – the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry
  • Nanobiology – the application of nanotechnology in biological research, and the study of living organisms and parts on the nanoscale level of organization
  • Neuroscience – the study of the nervous system
  • Paleontology – the study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life
  • Pathobiology or pathology – the study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of disease
  • Pharmacology – the study of the interactions between drugs and organisms
  • Phycology – the study of seaweeds and other algae
  • Physiology – the study of the functions and mechanisms occurring in living organisms
  • Phytopathology – the study of plant diseases (also called Plant Pathology)
  • Psychobiology – the application of methods traditionally used in biology to study human and non-human animals behaviour
  • Quantum biology – the study of the role of quantum phenomena in biological processes
  • Sociobiology – the study of social behavior in terms of evolution
  • Systems biology – the study of complex interactions within biological systems through a holistic approach
  • Structural biology – a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules
  • Theoretical biology – the branch of biology that employs abstractions and mathematical models to explain biological phenomena
  • Zoology – the study of animals, including classification, physiology, development, evolution and behaviour, including:
      • Ethology – the study of animal behaviour
      • Entomology – the study of insects
      • Herpetology – the study of reptiles and amphibians
      • Ichthyology – the study of fish
      • Mammalogy – the study of mammals
      • Ornithology – the study of birds

    Source of picture: Pixy


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