12 Disciples of Jesus (Twelve Apostles)

12 Disciples of Jesus (Twelve Apostles)

Names of the 12 Disciples of Jesus

The twelve apostles in particular, were the main disciples of Jesus, a central figure in Christianity. When Jesus lived and worked, the apostles were his closest followers. Later, these closest followers became the main sources of the Good News that Jesus preached. Below is a list of the names of the 12 Disciples of Jesus as identified by the Bible.

The 12 Disciples of Jesus are important because they were chosen by Jesus himself to carry out his mission, establish the Church, and spread the good news of salvation to the ends of the earth. Their legacy continues to shape the beliefs, practices, and identity of Christians worldwide.

The Twelve Disciples/Apostles were ordinary people whom God used in extraordinary ways. Among the twelve were fishermen, tax collectors and revolutionaries. The Gospels tell us about the shortcomings, struggles, and constant doubts of these twelve who followed Jesus Christ. After witnessing the resurrection and ascension of Jesus, they were transformed by the Holy Spirit into mighty servants of God who turned the world upside down (Acts 17.6). What has changed? The twelve disciples/apostles “were with Jesus” (Acts 4:13). Can the same be said about us!

Names of the 12 Disciples of Jesus by the Gospel of Matthew
  1. Simon (“who was called Peter”)
  2. Andrew brother Simon
  3. James the son of Zebedee
  4. John the brother of James
  5. Philip
  6. Bartholomew
  7. Thomas
  8. Matthew the tax collector
  9. James son of Alphaeus
  10. Thaddeus or Lebeus (Judas the Zealot in some translations)
  11. Simon the Canaanite
  12. Judas Iscariot

Gospel of Matthew | Jesus as the Promised Messiah

Names of the 12 Disciples of Jesus by the Gospel of Mark
  1. Simon
  2. Andreas
  3. James
  4. John, one of the Boanerge
  5. Philip
  6. Bartholomew
  7. Thomas
  8. Matthew
  9. James son of Alphaeus
  10. Thaddeus
  11. Simon the Canani
  12. Judas Iscariot

Gospel of Mark | The Dynamic Portrait of Jesus

Names of the 12 Disciples of Jesus by the Gospel of Luke
  1. Simon
  2. Andreas
  3. James
  4. John
  5. Philip
  6. Bartholomew
  7. Thomas
  8. Matthew
  9. James
  10. Judas son of James (Judas brother of James in some translations)
  11. Simon called Zealot
  12. Judas Iscariot

Gospel of Luke | Exploring the Journey of Compassion

Names of the 12 Disciples of Jesus by the Gospel of John
  1. Simon Peter
  2. Andreas
  3. one of Zebedee’s sons
  4. one of Zebedee’s sons
  5. Philip
  6. Nathanael
  7. Thomas who is also called Didymus
  8. Matthew: not mentioned
  9. James: not mentioned
  10. Judas who is not an Iscariot
  11. Simon: not mentioned
  12. Judas son of Simon Iscariot

Gospel of John | Unveiling the Divine Journey and Teachings

Names of the 12 Disciples of Jesus by Acts
  1. Peter
  2. Andreas
  3. James
  4. John
  5. Philip
  6. Bartholomew
  7. Thomas
  8. Matthew
  9. James
  10. Judas son of James (Judas brother of James in some translations)
  11. Simon the Zealot
  12. Judas is replaced by Matthias

Bible Acts | Acts of the Apostles

Explanation of the 12 Disciples of Jesus

These disciples were instrumental in spreading the message of Jesus throughout the world, and their actions and writings continue to inspire and guide Christians today.


Often considered the leader of the disciples, Peter was chosen by Jesus to be the “rock” upon which the Church would be built (Matthew 16:18). He played a central role in the early Christian community and is regarded as the first pope by the Catholic Church.

Simon Peter’s real name is Simon. The word Peter was added later by the Lord Jesus. The word Peter is a Greek translation of the word Kefa – Aramaic – which means solid rock, rock. Simon Peter was born in Betasaida, John 1:44, His father was named Yona or Jonah/John, Matthew 16:17, John 1:42, 21:15.

His sibling is Andreas. Matt. 10: 2. Simon Peter, James and John were among the disciples who were “closest” to the Lord Jesus, Mark 5:37, 9:2, 14:33.

It is very likely that Simon Peter moved and lived and worked as a fisherman in Capernaum. In this place, Simon Peter and Andrew, met Jesus, Mark 1:29; Luke 4:38.
Simon Peter was a disciple of the Lord Jesus who revealed himself the most than the other disciples. Simon Peter has a very attractive nature – plus the spiritual gifts and education he received from the Lord Jesus – attracts many people.

In speaking and acting, Simon Peter does so in a way that specifically expresses his character.

He never imitates the style and personality of others. His authenticity is one of the capitals in his true leadership.

He is a man of no deep thought, kind-hearted, impulsive and quick-acting, who is overcome by impulse at the moment.

These things can be seen in the Bible, among others:

a) Tried to walk on water and then hesitated to find the Lord Jesus
b) Wanted to build three tents on the Mount when the Lord Jesus was glorified on the mountain-so that Jesus, Moses, Elijah and himself would live in that place.
c) Don’t want to let the Lord Jesus wash his feet
d) Boasting his loyalty
e) Dare to defend the Lord Jesus with the field, and cut off one of the soldiers -named Malchus- who arrested the Lord Jesus in Gethsemane
f) Ignore the doubting John, and boldly enter into Jesus’ tomb
g) When he saw the Lord Jesus standing on the beach, he put on his clothes, then plunged into the lake and swam to the shore -because he could not wait for the boat laden with fish-to meet Jesus.

After Jesus’ resurrection, He (Jesus) revealed Himself specifically to Peter. In addition, the Lord Jesus needed his own time to restore Simon Peter.

This restoration was necessary because Simon Peter had denied the Lord Jesus, John 21:15-19. The restoration is evident in Letters 1 and Peter.

The great change in Simon Peter occurred at Pentecost. He stood on behalf of the disciples and preached to the people in Jerusalem, Acts 2:14-40.
Peter is often considered the leader of the Apostle group because of his closeness to Jesus’ needs. This is also because Peter became Jesus’ choice to be the foundation of His church.

In later developments, Simon Peter became one of the leaders of the Early Church. Over a long period of time, He played an important role in the development and growth of the Congregation or the Early Church. History as well as Church tradition shows that Simon Peter served until his old age until the end of his life in Rome.

Peter on the cross with his head down. “The only account we have of Peter’s martyrdom comes from the early Christian writer Hegesippus. The story includes a miraculous appearance of Christ.

When Peter was old (John 21:18), Nero planned to put Peter to death. When the disciples heard about it, they begged Peter to flee the city [which the Romans believed] and he did.
However, when he reached the city gate, he saw Christ walking towards him. Peter fell on his knees and said, “Lord, where are you going?” Christ answered, “I have come to be crucified again.” Through him, Peter knew it was time to suffer and die for Jesus and glorify God (John 21:19).

So, he returned to the city. After being arrested and taken to the place of martyrdom. According to St. Jerome, he asked to be crucified upside down because he considered himself unworthy to be crucified in the same position as his Lord.

In that city Rome he became a martyr, by being crucified head down by Emperor Nero, between the years 64-67 AD.

2. Andreas (Andrew)

In Greek, Andreas means the man. And Andrew was one of the 12 disciples of Jesus. His sibling is Simon Peter. They are from Betasida, John 1:44. Before becoming a disciple of the Lord Jesus, Andrew was a disciple of John the Baptist, John 1:40. Andrew and Simon Peter were among the first disciples called by the Lord Jesus, Mark 1:16-18; Acts 1:13.

Andrew: Peter’s brother, Andrew was one of the first disciples called by Jesus. He is known for bringing others to Jesus and for his role as a missionary, particularly in the area of modern-day Greece and Turkey.

Andrew was first recognized as a disciple of John the Baptist. This shows that he is very concerned about spiritual values. He responded to what John the Baptist taught about repentance, the kingdom of God and the final judgment.

The Synoptics – Matthew, Mark, Luke – do not tell of the first meeting between Andrew and the Lord Jesus. However, John treasures it as a most sacred memory.

The Bible shows that, when John the Baptist pointed to Jesus as the Lamb of God who took away the sins of mankind, Andrew and John turned to follow Him.
Andrew’s meeting with the Lord Jesus was so important that he always told others who Jesus was, and brought him to Him.

Bringing his own brother Simon Peter, to the Lord Jesus. Andrew first met Simon, his brother, and he said to him, “We have found the Messiah, meaning Christ”.

He brought him to Jesus, John 1:41 “Bring the Greeks who asked Jesus who Jesus was, Mark 13:3 Took a boy who had barley bread and fish to the Lord Jesus, so that He could feed 5000 people more, John 6:8-9.

Andrew was not only the first follower of Christ, he was also the first Christian worker, he was the first to bring others to the Lord Jesus. It was Adreas who told others about Christ, and then brought him to Him, compare . John 1:42, 12:21, 22 .

History and traditions of the early Church record that, Andrew preached the Gospel as far as Southern Russia and the Balkan Peninsula. Andrew died by crucifixion in Achaia – Patras – Greece. Andrew is also associated with the Apocrypha: Acta Andreas.

Andrew died on a cross like Peter, but with an X-shaped cross. He preached the Gospel to many Asian nations and was martyred in Edessa by being crucified on an X-shaped cross, which became known as Saint Andrew’s Cross.
Before he died, he was tortured with lashes by seven soldiers and tied to a cross. In this way they can prolong their sick and torment period.

A follower of Andreas who witnessed Andreas’ punishment told the words that Andreas had said before he died: “It turns out that my wishes and dreams have come true, where I can also feel the moments of being tortured and crucified like JESUS”.

Even when he was being tortured he continued to preach without stopping, two days before his death. Preaching while being flogged.


James was a thinker and a planner, not liking to act in a hurry. But all that changes 180 degrees when emotions take over. His nature is also very contrary to his younger brother John, James tends to be rude to the point of leaving an impolite impression.

But all he does is for a reason like to protect his loved ones. He is also a good speaker and declarator.

The name James, – Iakobos, is the Greek form of the Hebrew word Ya’qov- meaning the heel-holder, the deceiver. Then given a new meaning, namely, God protects.

Along with his brother John, James was part of the inner circle of Jesus’ disciples. He was present at significant events such as the Transfiguration and the Garden of Gethsemane.

James and his brother John, they were cousins ​​of Jesus, John 19:25, their parents were Zebedee and Salome, Matthew 27:56, Mark 15:40.

Before becoming disciples of the Lord Jesus, James and John and their father worked as fishermen, Luke 5:10-11. He, along with John and Simon Peter, became the closest disciples to the Lord Jesus.
James is one of the disciples of the Lord Jesus who is very enthusiastic and ambitious.

Together with Yohanes, they dared to express thoughts that tend to ignore and demean others around them – thus being given the titles of children of thunder or Boanerges before the Lord Jesus, among others:
a) sit beside Jesus, if he will reign as king, Mark 10:35-45.
b) asked Jesus for permission, that they might send fire down from heaven, Luke 9:51-56.
James – also Simon Peter and John became important witnesses in the ministry of the Lord Jesus, among others: when the resurrection of the son of Jairus, Jesus was glorified and Jesus’ face changed on the hill, before Jesus’ death on the cross

The Apostle James was the first disciple called by Jesus, he was beheaded in Jerusalem. He was the first apostle to be martyred among the 12 apostles (Acts 12:2).
He was executed around 44 AD by order of King Herod Agrippa I of Judea. His martyrdom was the fulfillment of what Jesus foretold about him and his brother John (Mark 10:39).

The famous writer, Clemens Alexandrinus, wrote that when James was taken to his place of execution, his extraordinary courage made such a deep impression on one person who captured him that he fell on his knees before the apostle, begged him for forgiveness, and confessed that he was a Christian too. He said that James should not die alone as a result of which they were both beheaded.


John – Greek, Ioanes, from the Hebrew word, Yeho – nah, Yohanan: literally meaning Pigeon was a common name in New Testament times. John means, YHWH gives gifts, the LORD God is a blessing or Blessing from the LORD God.

Often referred to as the “Beloved Disciple,” John was particularly close to Jesus and is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of John, three epistles, and the Book of Revelation.

Zebedee’s family came from Galilee, including a fairly rich and respected family. He had a fleet of ships and several assistants who helped him in the fishing business, Mark 1:19 – 20. John was the youngest child of Zebedee and Salome. Together with his brother James is also called or has the title Sons of Thunder, Mark 3:17.

When called by the Lord Jesus, John became the youngest disciple of the Lord Jesus, maybe he had just left his youth or was in early adulthood. This indicates that he has not yet reached personality maturity.

This is reflected in its properties, which show that:
  • Very shy and reluctant to talk about himself.
  • Not wanting to stand out, including never mentioning his name in the Bible, but using the third person category or hiding his identity with a phrase such as “The Disciple Beloved of Jesus”.
  • Has an intolerant nature, quickly offended by things he deems untrue.
  • It is very hard to fight against those who challenge his understanding.
  • Together with James they were given the title Boarnerges or children of thunder, perhaps because they were Galileans full of vitality and quickness, lack of discipline and sometimes misdirection, Luke 9:49.
  • With all his personality flaws and strengths, John was called by the Lord Jesus to be one of His disciples.

These qualities sometimes appear when serving with the Lord Jesus. This can be seen in several events, including:

  • strong reaction that came from a strong and clear disposition towards the Samaritans who refused Jesus’ company to pass through their village, Luke 9:54

John and also James had ambitions because of an incorrect reasoning about the image of the Kingdom of God, which Jesus would build or shape with a floating ego, accompanied by a willingness to suffer selflessly, conspicuous at the encouragement of their mother, Matthew 20:20 in the request made to Lord Jesus, so that he and James may be allowed to occupy a special and honorable place, when Jesus sits on the throne of His Kingdom, Mark 10:27

John – also Simon Peter and James became important witnesses in the ministry of the Lord Jesus, including the resurrection of Jairus’ son, Mark 5:37; Jesus is glorified and the face changes of Jesus on the hill, Mark 9:2; the events of Gethsemane before Jesus’ death on the cross, Mark 14:33; and also prepared the last Passover Supper, Luke 22:8
After returning from exile on the island of Patmos, John served and led the congregation until old age and died in Ephesus. Tradition says that he was assassinated during the reign of the emperor Traian, in the early II century AD.

The Lord Jesus turned John into an Apostle of Love. He shows the true manifestation of the love of the Lord Jesus. He knew the true love of Jesus. In all his writings or letters, the Gospel of John, 1, 2, 3 John, the Revelation of John uses the expression of Love 80 times.

John shows the experience of the Love of the Lord Jesus through his works as contained in the Bible:
  • The Lord God is Love, John 15:10
  • The Lord God loves His Son, John 10:17, 17:23-26
  • The Lord God loves Jesus’ disciples, John 16:27, 17:23
  • The Lord God loves man, John 3:16
  • The Lord God is loved by Jesus, John 14:31
  • The Lord God loves each individual in a special way, John 11:5, 36, 13:23
  • God’s love is general, John 13:1-34, 14:21, 15:9-10
  • Jesus expects people to love Him and His Father, John 8:42, 14:23
  • Jesus expects all humans to love one another, John 13:34-35, 15:12-13

5. Philip

Philip in Greek, Philippos means, horse friend may still be of Greek descent, or have a close relationship with Greece. Although it has a Greek name, it does not have Greek intelligence. Judea.

Philip was a simple disciple, slow to make decisions, reluctant to act on his own initiative, and had a shallow understanding of God’s Word. He is meticulous and almost like a robot.

What he received came out as is. His mind is not quick to react to something that is presented to him. Philip was weak in spiritual imagination, intuitiveness, and understanding in bearing the consequences of following Christ. Philip was born in Bethsaida, John 1:44, from the same town as Peter and Andrew, a small town.

Philip was one of the earliest disciples called by Jesus and is known for his role in bringing Nathanael to Jesus. He is also remembered for his encounter with the Ethiopian eunuch in Acts 8.

The Lord Jesus once tried (tested) Philip in John 6:5, He asked Philip, “Where are we going to buy bread, so that this crowd can eat?
The Lord Jesus did this to know his faith, and prove his understanding about Himself as long as he follows Him.

Philip apparently failed this “test”, because he used calculations in faith, John 6: 7. He was too careful with his practical attitude, became indecisive, because of too many calculations.

In the end, Philip became part of the Lord Jesus’ plan to perform a miracle to feed 5000 people, so that he understood the divine side of Christ’s mission.

Philip also turned out to be a “guide” who could not lead. This was evident when he failed to introduce the Greeks to Jesus, John 12: 20-22, because perhaps he was afraid that Jesus would reject the people. Therefore, he bestowed it on Andreas.

In fact, it is possible that the Greeks came to him because Philip had Greek relations based on his name.
John 14:7-12, shows that Philip had followed Christ for a long time but did not really know Christ

After the ascension of the Lord Jesus to heaven and after Philip received the gift of the Holy Spirit, Philip carried out the ministry of preaching the Gospel in Asia Minor, now the territory of Turkey. In his service, he died a martyr.

Philip was martyred just 10 years after James’ death, in 54 C.E. Philip is said to have been flogged and thrown into prison and then crucified at Hierapolis in Phrygia.


Nathanel is an Honest and Sincere person. He is perhaps the most respected of the 12 disciples of Jesus. He is also a smart, easy and fast learner, genius and has various talents. His only weakness was his excessive pride in himself. Although he never looked down on others, he often thought of himself as superior.

The name Nathanael, means “gift of God”, other names are, Bartholomew meaning “son of Tolmai” or son of Tolmai, Matthew 10:3; John 1:45. Nathanael / Bartholomew comes from Cana in Galilee, John 21: 2. Philip brought or introduced Nathanael / Bartholomew to the Lord Jesus.
Of all the disciples of the Lord Jesus, Nathanael was the only one who hesitated to follow Jesus. He did not believe in Philip’s invitation to follow the Lord Jesus. Nathanael / Bartholomew is affected by prejudice. That’s what made him hesitate. When Philip said to him, “We have found Him who was called by Moses in the Law and by the prophets, namely Jesus, the son of Joseph of Nazareth”, John 1:45. Nathanael answered critically, “Could it be anything good from Nazareth? ”

Bartholomew (Nathanael): Bartholomew is often identified with Nathanael, whom Jesus described as “an Israelite in whom there is no deceit” (John 1:47). He is traditionally associated with missionary work in India.

The good thing about Nathanael, however, is that he doesn’t let his doubts get in the way of hearing the evidence that Philip puts forth, that he met the Messiah. In response to Philip’s curt reply, Nathanael went with him to meet Jesus.

When he saw Nathanael coming, Jesus cried out, “Behold, this is a true Israel, there is no falsehood in him.”

The Lord Jesus found in Nathanael a solid foundation on which to build life and spiritual life and faith.
Nathanael was open-minded, honest and without falsehood, amazed that Jesus dared to express an opinion about his nature, even though they had never met, so he said: “How do you know me? “Within that limit Nathanael had the recognition and acknowledgment of Jesus as “Rabbi, You are the Son of God, You are the King of Israel”

According to the historical tradition of the Church, Nathanael served in Mesopotamia, Lycoania, and Armenia.

He became a missionary in several countries in Asia, including witnessing in Turkey. Then he translated Matthew’s Gospel into East Indian language and taught it in that country. He died in Armenia after he was punished with such cruel lashes that all of his skin fell apart like he was skinned alive.

7. Thomas

Thomas was one of the 12 disciples of Jesus. Thomas, meaning twin, is the Greek form, Thoma, of the Aramaic/Hebrew word To’am. And Thomas was one of the 12 disciples of Jesus. Early Church members who spoke Greek were called Didymos, or Didymus.

The Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke only list the name of Thomas in passing, or simply write and without much commentary as one of the twelve disciples of the Lord Jesus, see Matthew 10: 2 – 4; Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:14-16; Acts 1:13.

The Gospel of John provides a record of the “role” of Thomas when he was with the Lord Jesus, namely;
when the Lord Jesus was about to go to Judea to raise Lazarus. At that time the disciples reminded the Lord Jesus that in that place He was almost killed. But Jesus still headed for Judea.
Then Thomas said to the other disciples, “Let us also go to die with Him”, John 11:16, he claimed not to understand where the Lord Jesus was going, when He prepared the disciples about His coming departure, John 14: 5 He is also called the unbelieving Thomas, because he did not believe that the Lord Jesus had risen.

Known for his initial doubt regarding Jesus’ resurrection, Thomas later declared Jesus as “My Lord and my God” (John 20:28). He is often referred to as “Doubting Thomas.”

It was not there when the Lord Jesus appeared to the disciples, John 20:24; it needs tangible real evidence of the resurrection. A week later the Lord Jesus appeared again to the disciples including Thomas to witness the real evidence of the resurrection of His body. It was at this time that Thomas acknowledged Jesus as my Lord and God, John 20:28.

The encounter with the risen Jesus changed him. The meeting produced a faith that dispelled the doubts in him, awakened the spirit of his life and a strong determination to work for the glory and Kingdom of God.
This is evident from the record of the History of the Church by Eusebius in the fourth century:
became a pioneer of the Gospel in the Parthian Kingdom. It first brought the gospel to India especially in Malabar and Tranvancore – South India until the birth of the Mar Thoma Church, which flourished to this day, and produced evangelists who brought the gospel to Indonesia in the 5th century in Barus, west coast of North Sumatra.

The Apostle Thomas preached the gospel to Persia, Parthia, and India. In Calamina, India, he was tortured by angry infidels, his body pierced with a spear and thrown into the flames of an oven.

8. Matthew (Levi)

His real name before the Lord Jesus called him was Levi. It is certain that this Levi was a wealthy man, in addition to his profession as a tax collector, it is also implied by the Bible that he also held a banquet for his fellow professionals.

When he later became one of the 12 apostles, he was better known as Matthew, which in Greek means “God’s grace”.

Matthew was a Galilean born in Capernaum by the name of Levi, meaning together. His father was named Alphaeus, and his mother was Mary, who was not the mother of Jesus.
His family were devout and fanatical adherents of Judaism – Judaism. And are very nationalist people who have a high devotion to God, as well as love their existence as true Jews.

Matthew (Levi): A former tax collector, Matthew responded to Jesus’ call to follow him and later wrote the Gospel of Matthew, which emphasizes Jesus as the fulfillment of Jewish prophecy.

Despite disappointing his parents, Matthew worked as a tax collector – even head of a tax office or customs office – working for the Roman government. Working as a tax collector was so disliked by the Jews, that it was equated with sinners.

When the Lord Jesus was in Capernaum and on his way to the beach, He saw Levi / Matthew at the customs checkpoint. Jesus said to him, “Follow me! “, Luke 5:27, 28. Immediately, Matthew left his work and the sin of deception.

After knowing the Lord Jesus, he changed his name to Matthew,- the Greek form of the Hebrew, Mattai, meaning the gift of God.
Matthew did the work of ministry and preaching the gospel in Ethiopia, Africa. Matthew wrote a Gospel specifically addressed to the Jews. As a former head of the tax office, Matthew has the ability to be accustomed to detailed and systematic work and reports.

He used this ability to rewrite all the information about the Lord Jesus. The result of that work, known in the Gospel of Matthew.

The saint used Matthew so that he was able to rewrite almost all the important records of Jesus- Birth- Good Friday- Easter- The Last Message before He ascended to Heaven, which later became known as the Great Commission of the Lord Jesus Christ in the Gospel of Matthew.

Matthew became a martyr, being tortured and killed with the sword in Ethiopia. And Matthew was one of Jesus’ 12 disciples.

9. James, son of Alphaeus

James, to distinguish him from James the Son of Zebedee, the brother of John he is called James the Son of Alphaeus. James and Matthew were the children of Alphaeus and Mary, Mark 15:40. He was known as James-only-as well as an ordinary disciple. In the Gospel of Mark, he is called James the Younger or James the Less.

It was because of his small posture, or his younger age than James the son of Zebedee, the brother of John. Prior to becoming a disciple of the Lord Jesus, James the son of Alphaeus worked as a tax collector, serving as a tax collector, without coercion to the people or the merchants.

There is no accurate explanation as to why the Lord Jesus chose James the Son of Alphaeus as one of His disciples.

James, son of Alphaeus: Also known as James the Less, he is one of the lesser-known disciples. He may have been the author of the Epistle of James in the New Testament.

James the Son of Alphaeus was a man who never stood out. Of all His disciples, James the Son of Alphaeus, who never troubled the Lord Jesus. He never went back to his bad habits, doubted or had a misunderstanding.

  • The reasons the Lord Jesus chose James the Son of Alphaeus as a disciple, may be because:
  • He was very simple, not worried about anything either.
  • Does not reveal his personal identity.
  • Prioritize the work of God in the world.
  • He worked with dedication, wherever he was sent he carried out his duties well.
  • Maintain faith without expecting respect from anyone.

The name of James the Son of Alphaeus is written in the history of the preaching of the Gospel and the development of the Lord’s Church. However, it does not record how he carried out these ministry duties.

James the Son of Alphaeus evangelized as far as Spain, England and Ireland and then returned to Jerusalem. End of his ministry in Persia, and was killed in that place. Read also:

10. Thadeus

Thadeus is a disciple of the Lord Jesus who has three names at once, namely Thadeus, Lebbaeus, and his real name is Judas. Judas or Judah – as opposed to Judas Iscariot – means that Jehovah is leading or he will be recognized.

Lebbaeus, from Hebrew -Leb / Lev meaning heart, represents warmth and earnest character; in Greek it means children’s heart, courageous person. His father’s name was James, a different person from James the son of Zebedee and James the son of Alphaeus.

Thadeus is known through the questions he asked the Lord Jesus at the Last Supper, John 14: 18, 19: 21. The Bible does not give much explanation about Thadeus. He was less prominent among the disciples, but that doesn’t mean he didn’t or lacked faith. The purpose of the Lord Jesus’ speech was His disciples.

Jesus said that He would return to reveal Himself to them. Thadeus became confused, how the Lord Jesus revealed Himself to them without being seen by others.

Thaddaeus (Judas, son of James): Also called Lebbaeus or Judas (not Iscariot), he is mentioned in the lists of the disciples but not extensively in the Gospels.

Even if He could do it, why only show Himself to the disciples, and not to the world. Even though all the students wondered, only Thadeus dared to ask or speak. When answering Thadeus’s question, the Lord Jesus did not explain His existence in a real and comprehensive manner.

It happened because he wanted to get understanding from the heart. Therefore, Jesus’ answer shows, John 14:23, that devotion to the Lord is only manifest through love.

Thadeus showed devotion and perseverance and devoted life and life only to the Lord Jesus. Thadeus started calling Jesus by the name of the LORD, John 14:22.
Thadeus, carried out the ministry of evangelism in Syria, precisely in Edesa, later, after the fall of Jerusalem, Edesa became the center of Christianity and the Development of the Early Church. Thadeus and some of his students were arrested in Schavarschar – Syria, and sentenced to death.

11. Simon the Zealot

The Bible does not provide much information or introduction to this disciple of the Lord Jesus. To distinguish this Simon from Simon Peter, he is called Simon the Zealot, or Simon the Canaanite. Zealots were a tribe or group that rebelled against Roman rule.

Kanaani, comes from the word Kana which means a person who is very diligent, enterprising and very, very passionate. Simon the Zealot was a follower and also trained and educated Judas from Gamala in Galilee.

Judas was probably one of the descendants of Maccabees who led the Jewish rebellion against the Roman government. This group is pure, religious and fanatical followers of “Theocracy”.

Simon the Zealot: Little is known about Simon, but he is traditionally identified with the Zealot faction, a group advocating for the independence of Judea from Roman rule.

This movement is called Zealot, compare Acts 5:37. This group educates its members to dare to die for the independence and progress of the Jewish nation and religion. And very condescending to the Romans who colonized them.
It is possible that Simon the Zealot became a disciple of the Lord Jesus with the hope that he would become a revolutionary leader, capable of liberating Palestine in a revolution. There is no activity that is so prominent while being a disciple of the Lord Jesus. Simon the Zealot leaves political organization and political position

Simon the Zealot became an evangelist in Egypt – Africa, then in England, then back to Egypt. After the evangelism in Egypt, Simon the Zealot joined Thaddeus in Syria and Persia. Simon the Zealot and Thaddeus, they were both tortured, stoned, sawed and then killed with the sword in Persia.

12. Judas Iscariot

Judas Greek word form, adapted from Hebrew, son of Simon Iscariot, John 6: 71, 13: 26- meaning. Kariot, a small town, in Judea. Iscariot, meaning from. So Judas Iscariot is Judas who came from Karyot.

In the list of disciples, Judas is always mentioned or listed last, because he betrayed Jesus, Matthew 10:4.

Judas Iscariot: Infamously known for betraying Jesus to the religious authorities for thirty pieces of silver. His betrayal led to Jesus’ crucifixion, but it also fulfilled prophecy and was part of God’s plan for salvation.

Judas committed suicide, after he saw the suffering Jesus endured as a result of his betrayal.
After becoming a disciple of the Lord Jesus, Judas served as the holder of the financial treasury, Yohanes 12:6, 13:29 Judas was actually not a traitor, in the sense that he was trying to carry out the death of Jesus.

He is the same as the other disciples, they are waiting for the establishment of the Messianic Kingdom by the Lord Jesus. He was getting impatient, when the Lord Jesus from day to day delayed the establishment of the Messiah Kingdom.

Sources: PinterPandai, World AtlasBritannica

Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

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