Fri. Aug 5th, 2022
    Fluorescent minerals

    List of Minerals

    This list provides an overview of minerals. Minerals can be organized, mainly according to their chemistry, into the following classes:

    CLASSConsisting of:
    CarbonatesThe Carbonates, the Nitrates and the Borates
    ElementsThe Metals and their alloys and the Nonmetals
    HalidesThe Fluorides, the Chlorides and the Iodides
    OxidesThe Oxides and the Hydroxides
    PhosphatesThe Phosphates, the Arsenates, the Vanadates and the Antimonates
    SilicatesThe Silicates (the largest class)
    SulfatesThe Sulfates, the Sulfites, the Chromates, the Molybdates, the Selenates, the Selenites, the Tellurates, the Tellurites and the Tungstates (or the Wolframates)
    SulfidesThe Sulfides, the Selenides, the Tellurides, the Arsenides, the Antimonides, the Bismuthinides and the Sulfosalts
    Minerals are materials that meet these 5 requirements; they are: naturally occurring, inorganic, solids, with a definite chemical composition, and an ordered internal structure.

    The majority of the around 5,650 mineral types known today and recognized as independently by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA) (as of 2020) are inorganic , but some organic substances such as mellite and evenkite or the kidney stone formers whewellite and weddellite are also recognized as minerals because they also form in the wild. Including all known mineral varieties and synonyms However, there are more than 6,800 mineral names (as of 2018/19), names (approx. 1200) and not yet recognized mineral types (approx. 120).


    Classification of minerals

    Silicates Minerals

    Silicates and the various forms of silica attached to them have considerable industrial and geochemical significance. Silicates are salts or esters of silica (H 4 SiO 4 ). The salts all contain the tetrahedral SiO 4− ion (or a derivative thereof, with one or more hydrogen atoms). Silicates are used as raw materials in the preparation of glass . The silicates of sodium and calcium are called water glass and have applications in the art.

    The Silicates are divided into the following subclasses, not by their chemistries, but by their structures:

    • Nesosilicates (single tetrahedrons)
    • Sorosilicates (double tetrahedrons)
    • Inosilicates (single and double chains)
    • Cyclosilicates (rings)
    • Phyllosilicates (sheets)
    • Tectosilicates (frameworks)
    Silicates
    NesosilicatesTectosilicatesPhyllosilicatesInosilicatesSorosilicatesCyclosilicates
    1. Quartz (Also classified as oxide by some mineralogists)
      1. Agate
      2. Amethyst
      3. Aventurian
      4. Rock crystal
      5. Chalcedony
      6. Chrysoprase
      7. Citrine
      8. Heliotrope
      9. Iron quartz
      10. Jasper
      11. Morion
      12. Onyx
      13. Smoky quartz
      14. Rose quartz
      15. Sardonyx
      16. Tiger eye
      17. Tiger Iron
      18. Falcon’s eye
    2. Grenades
      1. Pyroop
      2. Almandine
      3. Grossular
      4. Uvarovite
      5. Andradite
      6. Spessartien
      7. Calderite
      8. Knorringite
    3. Olivine
      1. Fayalite
      2. Forsterite
    4. Sillimanite
    5. Andalusite
    6. Kyanite
    7. Staurolite
    8. Chloritoid
    9. Afwilliet
    10. Abswurmbachite
    11. Braunite
    12. Cerite
    13. Clinohumite
    14. Coffinite
    15. Datolite
    16. Dumortierite
    17. Esperite
    18. Euklaas
    19. Phenacite
    20. Gadolinite
    21. Glaucochroite
    22. Hafnon
    23. Homily
    24. Humite
    25. Huttonite
    26. Kasolite
    27. Larniet
    28. Liberite
    29. Merwinite
    30. Monticellite
    31. Neptunite
    32. Ottrelite
    33. Oursinite
    34. Spurriet
    35. Tainiolite
    36. Tefroiet
    37. Thorite
    38. Titanite
    39. β-Uranophane
    40. Uranophane
    41. Willemite
    42. Zircon
    43. Topaz
    1. Feldspars
      1. Potassium feldspar
        1. Orthoclaas
        2. Sanidien
        3. Anorthoclase
        4. Microcline
      2. Plagioclase
        1. Albite
        2. Oligoclaas
        3. Andesian
        4. Labradorite
        5. Bytownite
        6. Anorthite
      3. Buddingtonite
      4. Celsian
      5. Petalite
      6. Rubiklien
    2. Feldspar substitutes
      1. Afghanite
      2. Cancrinite
      3. Davyn
      4. Haüyn
      5. Helviet
      6. Kalsilite
      7. Lazurite
      8. Leucite
      9. Nepheline
      10. Nose
      11. Sodalite
      12. Tugtupite
    3. Zeolites
      1. Analcim
      2. Brewsterite
      3. Chabazite
      4. Clinoptilolite
      5. Dachiardite
      6. Ferrierite
      7. Gismondien
      8. Gmelinite
      9. Gottardiite
      10. Harmotome
      11. Heulandiet
      12. Laumontite
      13. Maricopaite
      14. Mazziet
      15. Mesolite
      16. Mordenite
      17. Nabesite
      18. Natrolite
      19. Pollucite
      20. Phillipsite
      21. Scolecite
      22. Stilbite
    4. Meionite
    5. Scapolite
    1. Micas
      1. Biotite
      2. Muscovite
      3. Chlorite
        1. Bailey chlorine
        2. Chamosite
        3. Clinochlor
        4. Cookeiet
        5. Donbassite
        6. Gonyerite
        7. Never
        8. Orthochamosite
        9. Pennantite
        10. Sudoite
      4. Cavansite
      5. Celadonite
      6. Falconite
      7. Phlogopite
      8. Glauconite
      9. Lepidolite
      10. Mariposite
      11. Palygorskite
      12. Paragonite
      13. Sepiolite
      14. Zinnwaldite
    2. Clay minerals
      1. Illite
      2. Smectite
        1. Montmorillonite
        2. Nontronite
        3. Pyrophyllite
        4. Saliotite
        5. Saponite
        6. Sauconite
        7. Talk
        8. Vermiculite
      3. Kaolinite
        1. Dickiet
        2. Halloysite
        3. Nacrite
        4. Odinite
    3. Serpentine
      1. Antigorite
      2. Chrysotile
      3. Cronstedtite
      4. Dozyite
    4. Allophane
    5. Apophyllite
    6. Chapmanite
    7. Clintonite
    8. Hisingerite
    9. Prehnite
    10. Sanbornite
    11. Seriously
    12. Stilpnomelaan
    13. Zinalsite
    1. Amphiboles
      1. Actinolite
      2. Asbestos
      3. Amosite
      4. Anthophyllite
      5. Arfvedsonite
      6. Crocidolite
      7. Cummingtonite
      8. Edeniet
      9. Glaucophan
      10. Grunerite
      11. Hastingsite
      12. Hornblende
      13. Kaersutite
      14. Pargasite
      15. Richterite
      16. Riebeckiet
      17. Tremolite
      18. Tscreenakiet
    2. Pyroxenes
      1. Aegirien
      2. Augite
      3. Diopside
      4. Donpeacorite
      5. Enstatite
      6. Esseneite
      7. Ferrosilite
      8. Hedenbergite
      9. Hypersthene
      10. Jadeite
      11. Jervisite
      12. Johannsenite
      13. Canoeite
      14. Kosmochlor
      15. Namansilite
      16. Natalyite
      17. Nchwaningiet
      18. Conversion
      19. Petedunite
      20. Pigeonite
      21. Spodumene
    3. Enigmatite
    4. Aerinite
    5. Alamosite
    6. Astrophyllite
    7. Babingtonite
    8. Bustamite
    9. Carfolite
    10. Charoite
    11. Chkalovite
    12. Pectolite
    13. Pyrox ferroite
    14. Rhodonite
    15. Sapphire
    16. Shattuckite
    17. Tobermorite
    18. Wollastonite
    19. Xonotlite
    1. Allanite
    2. Bertrandite
    3. Barylite
    4. Clinozoisite
    5. Danburite
    6. Epidote
    7. Gehlenite
    8. Hardystonite
    9. Hemimorphite
    10. Ilvaiet
    11. Kinoite
    12. Lawsonite
    13. Leucophan
    14. Melilite
    15. Mongolite
    16. Niocalite
    17. Pumpellyite
    18. Thortveitiet
    19. Tilleyiet
    20. Vesuvianite
    21. Zoisite
    22. Zunyite
    1. Abenakiite
    2. Bazziet
    3. Benitoite
    4. Beryl
      1. Aquamarine
      2. Pezzotaite
      3. Emerald
    5. Bobtraillite
    6. Chrysocolla
    7. Combeite
    8. Cordierite
    9. Eudialyt
    10. Nenadkevichiet
    11. Osumilite
    12. Papagoite
    13. Roedderiet
    14. Sekaninaite
    15. Steacyite
    16. Sugilite
    17. Taramellite
    18. Tourmaline
      1. Draviet
      2. Elbaiet
      3. Schorl
      4. Uviet
    19. Verplanckite

    Oxides, Sulphides, Sulphates, Phosphates, Carbonates, Borates, Tungsten, Molybdates

    • Oxides: In inorganic chemistry , an oxide is a compound between another element and oxygen in which oxygen acts as an oxidizer and assumes the oxidation state −2 (O 2− ). Many oxides are black but others can be very colorful. The large diversity of oxides can be partially attributed to the extreme abundance of oxygen in the Earth’s crust. Oxygen comprises over 45% of the Earth’s crust by weight. Most of this is locked up in more complex minerals based on chemical complex anions such as CO3, BO3, SO4, NO3, SiO4, PO4 and others. But great opportunities exist for single oxygen ions to combine with various elements in many different ways.
    • Sulphides: A sulfide is an ion of sulfur in oxidation state 2− (S 2− ). A group of about 600 minerals, such as stibnite (also known as antimonite) and galena in which sulfur bonds with metallic and metallic elements. Most sulfides are opaque, clearly colored and streaked. Minerals belonging to the selenide, telluride, antimonide and arsenide subclasses have very similar properties to the more common sulfides and are thus included here. The whole or partial supplanting of sulfur by either selenium, tellurium, antimony, arsenic or bismuth is possible because these elements have similar sizes, charges and ionic strengths. Only minerals in the sulfide class that have no appreciable sulfur are included in these subclasses. If there is enough sulfur in the mineral to be named in the formula then it is treated as a normal sulfide.
    • Sulphates: The typical Sulfate Class mineral is vitreous, average to above average in density, average in hardness and are originally formed in veins, oxidation zones, contact metamorphic zones and in evaporite deposits. Some Sulfate Class minerals are soluble and several are fluorescent. All other properties are variable.
    • Phosphates: The typical phosphate is vitreous to dull, often strongly colored, above average in density, average in hardness (4-7), and low in index of refraction unless ions such as lead are present. All other properties are variable. Many interesting and beautiful mineral specimens come from this class and although a large number of minerals are known to belong to this class, only some of the members of the Apatite Group are considered common.
    • Carbonates: A carbonate is a salt or ester of dihydrogen carbonate (carbonic acid). Carbonates are minerals that are found in abundance on the Earth’s surface. Calcium carbonate is the main constituent of the shells of many organisms. Most of these common characteristics are due to the common chemistry the group shares and members that diverge from the norm do so because of the effects of metal cations such as lead, copper, manganese and iron.
    • Borates: A borate mineral is a mineral that has borate as an anion. The borate group contains 125 minerals in which metallic elements bond with borate such as borax . Borate units form chains and plate-like structures that correspond to silicate groups. The best known natural complex borate minerals, around sixty out of a hundred inventoried, are, in addition to the most abundant borax, boracite, boronatrocalcite or ulexite, colemanite, borocalcite, ascharite or szaibelyite, kaliborite, kernite, kurnakovite, pinnaite, pandermite or priceite, tunellite, larderellite, probertite, inderite, hydroboracite, inyoite, priceite, ginorite and strontioginorite … but also howlite, sussexite, hambergite, synhalite, rhodizite Na, harkerite and bakerite.
    • Tungsten: Tungstates are found naturally with molybdates. Scheelite, the mineral tungstate of calcium, often contains small amounts of molybdate. Wolframite is the tungstate of manganese and iron, and all of these minerals are important sources of tungsten. Powellite is a mineral form of calcium molybdate containing a small amount of tungstate.
    • Molybdates: Only a few minerals containing essential molybdate are known, and overwhelmingly, molybdate minerals contain the simple molybdate ion. In this connection, the chemistry of molybdenum displays some differences compared to that of its congeners, chromium and tungsten.
    OxidesSulphidesSulphatesPhosphatesCarbonatesBoratesTungstenMolybdates
    1. Anataas
    2. Armalcolite
    3. Arsenolite
    4. Baddeleyite
    5. β-Fergusonite- (Ce)
    6. β-Fergusonite- (Nd)
    7. β-Fergusonite- (Y)
    8. Billietite
    9. Bismite
    10. Bixbyite
    11. Brookite
    12. Bunsenite
    13. Cassiterite
    14. Chrysoberyl
    15. Columbite
    16. Cuprite
    17. Euxenite
    18. Franconite
    19. Gahnite
    20. Goethite
    21. Hausmannite
    22. Hematite
    23. Hollandite
    24. Ilmenite
    25. Corundum
      1. Ruby
      2. Sapphire
    26. Limonite
    27. Lopariet
    28. Magnetite
    29. Manganite
    30. Martiet
    31. Periclaas
    32. Perovskite
    33. Psilomelaan
    34. Pyrolusite
    35. Rutile
    36. Rynersonite
    37. Schoepiet
    38. Simpsonite
    39. Spinel
    40. Tantalite
    41. Tenorite
    42. Uraninite
    43. Valentinite
    44. Xocomecatlite
    45. Zincite
    1. Acanthite
    2. Aguilarite
    3. Aikinite
    4. Alabandite
    5. Annivite
    6. Argentite
    7. Argentopyrite
    8. Arsenopyrite
    9. Berthierite
    10. Bismuthinite
    11. Bornite
    12. Boulangeriet
    13. Bournonite
    14. Breithauptiet
    15. Briartite
    16. Černýiet
    17. Chalcopyrite
    18. Chalcocite
    19. Canfieldite
    20. Cinnabar
    21. Covellite
    22. Cubanite
    23. Cylindrite
    24. Emplective
    25. Enargite
    26. Friedrichiet
    27. Galena
    28. Greenockite
    29. Haueriet
    30. Herzenbergite
    31. Hutchinsonite
    32. Jalpaite
    33. Jamesonite
    34. Jordanite
    35. Laurite
    36. Marcasite
    37. Metacinnaberite
    38. Millerite
    39. Molybdenite
    40. Orpiment
    41. Polybasite
    42. Proustite
    43. Pyrargyrite
    44. Pyrite
    45. Pyrrhotite
    46. Real cooking
    47. Stefanite
    48. Stibnot
    49. Teallite
    50. Tennantite
    51. Tetradymite
    52. Tetrahedrite
    53. Ullmannite
    54. Vaesite
    55. Wassonite
    56. Wittichenite
    57. Wolframite
    58. Wurtzite
    59. Xanthoconite
    60. Uytenbogard beetle
    61. Zincblende
    62. Not zinc
    1. Anglesite
    2. Antlerite
    3. Barite
    4. Beudantite (also arsenate)
    5. Blödiet
    6. Brochantite
    7. Celestite
    8. Chalcanthite
    9. Copiapite
    10. Devillien
    11. Epsomite
    12. Cast
      1. Selenite
    13. Halotrichite
    14. Hanksiet
    15. Jarosite
    16. Jokokuiet
    17. Langbeinite
    18. Leadhillite
    19. Kogarkoiet
    20. Meridianiite
    21. Linarite
    22. Posnjakite
    23. Radio barite
    24. Thénardite
    25. Zippee
    1. Aheylite
    2. Alforsite
    3. Amblygonite
    4. Apatite
      1. Fluorapatite
      2. Hydroxylapatite
    5. Bolivarite
    6. Brabantite
    7. Brazilianite
    8. Brushite
    9. Cornetite
    10. Crandallite
    11. Evansite
    12. Hopeite
    13. Libethenite
    14. Olgite
    15. Pseudomalachite
    16. Purpurite
    17. Pyromorphite
    18. Not Torber
    19. Turquoise
    20. Variscite
    21. Vivianite
    22. Wavellite
    23. Xenotim
    1. Ankerite
    2. Aragonite
    3. Aurichalcite
    4. Azurite
    5. Bastnäsite
    6. Calcite
    7. Caledonite
    8. Camerolaite
    9. Cancrinite
    10. Cerussite
    11. Dolomite
    12. Phosgenite
    13. Huntite
    14. Hydromagnesite
    15. Hydrotalcite
    16. Hydrozincite
    17. Magnesite
    18. Malachite
    19. Meionite
    20. Parisite
    21. Rhodochrosite
    22. Rosasite
    23. Siderite
    24. Smithsonite
    25. Strontianite
    26. Tyrolite
    27. Weloganite
    28. Witherite
    29. Zaratite
    1. Admontite
    2. Berborite
    3. Boracite
    4. Hambergite
    5. Jeremejeviet
    6. Jimboiet
    7. Kornerupien
    8. Ludwigite
    9. Painite
    10. Sassolite
    11. Tincalconite
    12. Ulexite
    1. Ferberite
    2. Hübnerite
    3. Russellite
    4. Scheelite
    5. Stolzite
    6. Wolframite (oxide)
    1. Ferrimolybite
    2. Molybite
    3. W

    Stones and Minerals – Tellurides, Selenides, Halides, Arsenates, Vanadates, Chromates, Hydroxides and Other

    • Tellurides: There are many telluride mineral species and the most common gold bearing varieties include calaverite, krennerite, sylvanite and petzite.
    • Selenides: Selenide minerals are those minerals that have the selenide anion as a main component.
      Halides: A group of minerals whose principle anions are halogens. Halogens are a special group of elements that usually have a charge of negative one when chemically combined. There are only a few common halide minerals. The typical halide mineral is soft, can be transparent, is generally not very dense, has good cleavage, and often has bright colors.
    • Arsenates: An arsenate mineral is any mineral that has arsenate as an anion. A distinction must be made here between minerals with crystal water and minerals without crystal water. Unlike phosphate minerals, arsenates are produced in a secondary way through weathering.
    • Vanadates: Typically, they form at the expense of primary arsenic or vanadium-rich minerals by weathering and oxidation processes; some may have been precipitated in reducing hydrogen sulfide-rich environments.
    • Chromates: Chromates are sometimes used as corrosion protection agents (pigments).
    • Hydroxides: Many chromates have an intense color, which is why they are (or were) used as a coloring component in painters’ paint, for example “chrome yellow ” (PbCrO4).
    TelluridesSelenidesHalidesArsenatesVanadatesChromatesHydroxidesOther
    1. Altaite
    2. Bilibinsky
    3. Calaverite
    4. Hessite
    5. Krennerite
    6. Petzite
    7. Quetzalcoatlite
    8. Sylvanite
    1. Klockmannite
    2. Oosterboschite
    3. Umangite
    1. Anthonyite
    2. Asisite
    3. Campylite
    4. Carnallite
    5. Creedite
    6. Fluorite
    7. Halite
    8. Calomel
    9. Sylviet
    10. Fluorspar
    1. Adamite
    2. Annabergite
    3. Beudantite (also sulphate)
    4. β-Roselite
    5. Chalcophyllite
    6. Conichalcite
    7. Erythrite
    8. Euchroite
    9. Pharmacolite
    10. Pharmacosiderite
    11. Legrandite
    12. Liroconite
    13. Mimetite
    14. Olivenite
    15. Roselite
    16. Tyrolite
    1. Carnotite
    2. Descloizite
    3. Margaritasite
    4. Mottramite
    5. Tokyoite
    6. Tyuyamunite
    7. Vanadinite
    1. Chromite
    2. Crocoite
    3. Lopezite
    4. Vauquelinite
    1. Bauxite
    2. Brucite
    3. Diaspoor
    4. Gibbsite
    1. Ahlfeldite
    2. Allabogdanite
    3. Bloodstone
    4. Catlinite
    5. Coltan
    6. Haxonite
    7. Moschellandbergite
    8. Oregonite
    9. Skutterudite
    10. Stibarseen

    Organic compounds

    1. Abelsonite
    2. Amber
    3. Evenkiet

    Elements and Alloys

    1. gold
    2. Graphite
      1. Diamond
    3. Hapkeiet
    4. Jedwabite
    5. Copper
    6. Platinum
    7. Taenite

    **************************************************

    Sources: Geology, International Mineralogical Association, Scioly

    Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

    Main photo explanations: Collection of various fluorescent minerals under ultraviolet UV-A, UV-B and UV-C light. Chemicals in the rocks absorb the ultraviolet light and emit visible light of various colors, a process called fluorescence.