The Main organ systems of the human body
The main systems of the human body are:
Circulatory system / Cardiovascular system:
Circulates blood around the body via the heart, arteries and veins, delivering oxygen and nutrients to organs and cells and carrying their waste products away.
Keeps the body’s temperature in a safe range.
Digestive system and Excretory system:
- System to absorb nutrients and remove waste via the gastrointestinal tract, including the mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines.
- Eliminates waste from the body.
The function of any organ requires energy. Just like fuel for machines, the body is energized by the nutrients that go through the food. The digestive system breaks down the food we eat into foods that the body can absorb as energy and excrete waste products that are part of the metabolic process.
Influences the function of the body using hormones.
The endocrine system is made up of all the organs that have the capacity to release hormones into the blood. Endocrine cells can be located in an organ specializing in the secretion of hormones; an endocrine gland, or within an organ in clusters of endocrine cells or in isolated cells (diffuse endocrine system).
Integumentary system / Exocrine system:
Skin, hair, nails, sweat and other exocrine glands.
It is all that concerns the external coating of the body (skin, hair, hair, nails, scales, shell, feathers, etc.). The integumentary system forms the outer layer of the body.
An exocrine gland is a gland which secretes substances intended to be expelled from the body in the external environment, that is to say for example at the level of the skin, the digestive tract or the respiratory tract. The exocrine glands deliver their secretion through an excretory duct, this distinguishes them from the endocrine glands which directly release their secretions into the bloodstream at the level of the blood capillaries. Certain exocrine glands also have a role of endocrine gland, they are called amphicrine glands.
Immune system and lymphatic system:
Defends the body against pathogens that may harm the body.
The system comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph.
The immune system is of great importance for the physical integrity of living beings, because practically all organisms are constantly exposed to the influences of the environment; some of these influences pose a threat: if harmful microorganisms penetrate the body, this can lead to malfunctions and diseases. Typical pathogens are bacteria , viruses and fungi as well as unicellular (e.g. protozoa such as plasmodia) or multicellular parasites (e.g. tapeworms).
The lymphatic system is a secondary circulatory system that functions to drain lymph or lymph in the body. Lymph (not spleen) comes from blood plasma that exits the cardiovascular system into the surrounding tissues. Lymph or lymph is a clear, yellowish fluid that contains white blood cells, platelets, and fibrinogen. The content of fibrinogen in the spleen causes the spleen to clot. Lymph fluid is not always in the lymph vessels, therefore it is called open circulation.
Enables the body to move using muscles.
The muscular system is the organ system that takes care of the locomotion of the human body . This muscle action allows the body and body parts to change shape and position. The groups of muscles are the main muscles, neck muscles, back muscles, chest muscles, abs, arm muscles and leg muscles. In addition, the tendon sheaths and bursae are also included in this organ system. There are 640 to 850 muscles in humans which are almost all controlled by the nervous system.
Muscles are a tissue structure of cells that can contract (contract) allowing movement. Muscle tissue comes in three forms: striated muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle. The reference man consists of about 40% mass percentage of muscles and this therefore covers the largest part of the tissues and organs in the composition of the human body.
Collects and processes information from the senses via nerves and the brain and tells the muscles to contract to cause physical actions.
Renal system / Urinary system
The system where the kidneys filter blood to produce urine, and get rid of waste.
The reproductive organs required for the production of offspring. The female and male genitalia, the related secretions, the testes, the uterus, and the production and function of sex hormones are all part of the reproductive system.
Brings air into and out of the lungs to absorb oxygen and remove carbon dioxide.
In humans, the respiratory system is made up of the airways, lungs, and respiratory muscles that cause air to move both in and out of the body. In the pulmonary alveoli , oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules are passively exchanged, by diffusion between the gaseous environment and the blood. In this way, the respiratory system enables oxygenation and the elimination of carbon dioxide, which is a waste substance of cellular metabolism. The system also fulfills the function of maintaining the balance between acids and bases in the body through the efficient removal of carbon dioxide from the blood.
Bones maintain the structure of the body and its organs.
The human skeleton is made up of 206 constant bones in adulthood (around 350 at birth) and a variable number of supernumerary bones depending on the individual. These bones are supported and supported by ligaments, tendons, muscles, fascia and cartilage, forming the musculoskeletal system. The fetus has a cartilaginous skeleton whose ossification (transformation into bone) begins before birth and continues until adulthood.