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Intelligence is the set of processes found in systems, more or less complex, living or not, which make it possible to understand, learn or adapt to new situations. The definition of intelligence as well as the question of a faculty of general intelligence have been the subject of many philosophical and scientific discussions. Intelligence has been described as a faculty of adaptation (learning to adapt to the environment) or on the contrary, a faculty of modifying the environment to adapt it to one’s own needs. In this general sense, animals, plants or even computer tools (machine learning) show intelligence.
Intelligence can also be seen as the ability to process information to achieve goals.
Intelligence is studied, among others, by cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, anthropology (evolution), cognitive ethology (animal intelligence), neurosciences (biology) and genetics.
Insight is the understanding of a specific cause and effect within a particular context. The term insight can have several related meanings:
- A piece of information.
- An act or result of understanding the inner nature of things or of seeing intuitively (called noesis in Greek).
- An introspection.
- The power of acute observation and deduction, perception, and discernment, called intellection or noesis.
- An understanding of cause and effect based on the identification of relationships and behaviors within a model, context, or scenario.
In animals, it is the endocrine or neuronal communication systems that produce intelligence.
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