Wed. Aug 3rd, 2022

    Molar Ionization Energies of the Elements

    The list of the molar ionization energies of the elements gives the ionization energy necessary for each of the ionizations of the listed atoms. The first ionization concerns the neutral atom, while the others give the energy values necessary to remove each additional electron.

    The values are expressed in kilojoules per mole (kJ⋅mol−1).

    Data for rutherfordium or any element with a higher atomic number are theoretical predictions.

    The ionization potential or molar ionization energies of an atom or a molecule is the energy necessary to tear an electron from it. More generally, the …th ionization energy is the energy required to tear off the …th electron after the first n-1 electrons have been stripped. In physical chemistry, the concept of ionization energy is the reverse of that of electronic affinity, that is to say of its propensity to give up or on the contrary to retain an electron.

    General

    Ionization energy is expressed in eV or Joule or kiloJoule / mole (kJ / mole). 1 electron-Volt is very close to 100 kJ / mole. It is a magnitude which is always positive, which means that it is always necessary to provide energy to an atom to snatch one (or more) electrons from it. The ionization energy varies according to the atom or the molecule considered, as well as its state of ionization.

    You can ionize an atom with more than one electron in several steps. For example, a boron atom has five electrons: two in an inner shell (1s2) and three in the valence shell (2s2 and 2p1). The ionization energy of order n is the energy necessary to successively separate n electrons from the atom. The energy of first ionization varies a lot between atoms. Ionization energy rises along one row of the Periodic Table of Elements then sharply decreases when moving to another row.

    The torn electron that is considered in the concept of ionization energy comes from the valence layer. But it can happen that an electron from the deep layers of the atom is torn off without the electrons from the superficial layers having been torn off beforehand; in this case the electrons then reorganize themselves, giving rise to radiation (X-ray fluorescence).

    Numerical values ​​of ionization energies

    Generally speaking, ionization energies decrease along a column of the Periodic Table of the Elements and increase from left to right along a row of the table. The ionization energy shows a strong anticorrelation with the atomic radius. The successive ionization energies of a given element gradually increase, as can be seen in the table below. The increase is particularly strong when after the complete exhaustion of a layer of atomic orbital, one passes to a new layer. This is because when all the electrons in an orbital have been extracted, the next ionization energy will be to extract an electron from an orbital closer to the nucleus, where the electrostatic force that binds the electron to the nucleus is more intense.

    Ionization energy in quantum mechanics

    Bohr’s model does not quite conform to the theory of quantum mechanics, better described by the Schrödinger Model according to which the location of the electron is described not deterministically, but as a “cloud” of locations with a certain probability of being more or less close to the nucleus. This more rigorous approach is also a more complicated one, but we can give some avenues to approach it: The cloud corresponds to a wave function or, more precisely to a linear combination of Slater’s determinants, that is to say , according to the Pauli Exclusion Principle, antisymmetric products of Atomic Orbital or Molecular Orbital. This linear combination is an interacting development of configurations of the electronic wave function.

    In the general case, to calculate the nth ionization energy, it is necessary to subtract the energy of a system of Z – n + 1 electrons from a system of Z – n electrons. The calculation of these energies is not simple, but it is a fairly classic problem of what is called computational chemistry, that is, the study of chemistry by digital scanning. As a first approximation, the ionization energy can be deduced from Koopmans theorem

    1st–10th ionisation energies – Molar Ionization Energies of the Elements

    numbersymbolname1st2nd3rd4th5th6th7th8th9th10th
    1Hhydrogen1312.0
    2Hehelium2372.35250.5
    3Lilithium520.27298.111,815.0
    4Beberyllium899.51757.114,848.721,006.6
    5Bboron800.62427.13659.725,025.832,826.7
    6Ccarbon1086.52352.64620.56222.737,83147,277.0
    7Nnitrogen1402.328564578.17475.09444.953,266.664,360
    8Ooxygen1313.93388.35300.57469.210,989.513,326.571,33084,078.0
    9Ffluorine1681.03374.26050.48407.711,022.715,164.117,86892,038.1106,434.3
    10Neneon2080.73952.36122937112,17715,23819,999.023,069.5115,379.5131,432
    11Nasodium495.845626910.3954313,35416,61320,11725,49628,932141,362
    12Mgmagnesium737.71450.77732.710,542.513,63018,02021,71125,66131,65335,458
    13Alaluminium577.51816.72744.811,57714,84218,37923,32627,46531,85338,473
    14Sisilicon786.51577.13231.64355.516,09119,80523,78029,28733,87838,726
    15Pphosphorus1011.819072914.14963.66273.921,26725,43129,87235,90540,950
    16Ssulfur999.62252335745567004.38495.827,10731,71936,62143,177
    17Clchlorine1251.2229838225158.66542936211,01833,60438,60043,961
    18Arargon1520.62665.8393157717238878111,99513,84240,76046,186
    19Kpotassium418.83052442058777975959011,34314,94416,963.748,610
    20Cacalcium589.81145.44912.46491815310,49612,27014,20618,19120,385
    21Scscandium633.11235.02388.67090.6884310,67913,31015,25017,37021,726
    22Tititanium658.81309.82652.54174.6958111,53313,59016,44018,53020,833
    23Vvanadium650.91414283045076298.712,36314,53016,73019,86022,240
    24Crchromium652.91590.62987474367028744.915,45517,82020,19023,580
    25Mnmanganese717.31509.0324849406990922011,50018,77021,40023,960
    26Feiron762.51561.9295752907240956012,06014,58022,54025,290
    27Cocobalt760.41648323249507670984012,44015,23017,95926,570
    28Ninickel737.11753.033955300733910,40012,80015,60018,60021,670
    29Cucopper745.51957.9355555367700990013,40016,00019,20022,400
    30Znzinc906.41733.338335731797010,40012,90016,80019,60023,000
    31Gagallium578.81979.329636180
    32Gegermanium7621537.53302.144119020
    33Asarsenic947.0179827354837604312,310
    34Seselenium941.020452973.741446590788014,990
    35Brbromine1139.921033470456057608550994018,600
    36Krkrypton1350.82350.4356550706240757010,71012,13822,27425,880
    37Rbrubidium403.026333860508068508140957013,12014,50026,740
    38Srstrontium549.51064.2413855006910876010,23011,80015,60017,100
    39Yyttrium6001180198058477430897011,19012,45014,11018,400
    40Zrzirconium640.112702218331377529500
    41Nbniobium652.11380241637004877984712,100
    42Momolybdenum684.315602618448052576640.812,12513,86015,83517,980
    43Tctechnetium70214702850
    44Ruruthenium710.216202747
    45Rhrhodium719.717402997
    46Pdpalladium804.418703177
    47Agsilver731.020703361
    48Cdcadmium867.81631.43616
    49Inindium558.31820.727045210
    50Sntin708.61411.82943.03930.37456
    51Sbantimony8341594.924404260540010,400
    52Tetellurium869.31790269836105668682013,200
    53Iiodine1008.41845.93180
    54Xexenon1170.42046.43099.4
    55Cscaesium375.72234.33400
    56Babarium502.9965.23600
    57Lalanthanum538.110671850.348195940
    58Cecerium534.410501949354763257490
    59Prpraseodymium5271020208637615551
    60Ndneodymium533.1104021303900
    61Pmpromethium540105021503970
    62Smsamarium544.5107022603990
    63Eueuropium547.1108524044120
    64Gdgadolinium593.4117019904250
    65Tbterbium565.8111021143839
    66Dydysprosium573.0113022003990
    67Hoholmium581.0114022044100
    68Ererbium589.3115021944120
    69Tmthulium596.7116022854120
    70Ybytterbium603.41174.824174203
    71Lulutetium523.513402022.343706445
    72Hfhafnium658.5144022503216
    73Tatantalum7611500
    74Wtungsten7701700
    75Rerhenium760126025103640
    76Ososmium8401600
    77Iriridium8801600
    78Ptplatinum8701791
    79Augold890.11980
    80Hgmercury1007.118103300
    81Tlthallium589.419712878
    82Pblead715.61450.53081.540836640
    83Bibismuth70316102466437054008520
    84Popolonium812.1
    85Atastatine899.003
    86Rnradon1037
    87Frfrancium380
    88Raradium509.3979.0
    89Acactinium499117019004700
    90Ththorium587111019782780
    91Paprotactinium568112818142991
    92Uuranium597.6142019003145
    93Npneptunium604.5112819973242
    94Puplutonium584.7112820843338
    95Amamericium578115821323493
    96Cmcurium581119620263550
    97Bkberkelium601118621523434
    98Cfcalifornium608120622673599
    99Eseinsteinium619121623343734
    100Fmfermium627122523633792
    101Mdmendelevium635123524703840
    102Nonobelium642125426433956
    103Lrlawrencium470142822284910
    104Rfrutherfordium580139023003080
    105Dbdubnium6651547237832994305
    106Sgseaborgium75717332484341645625716
    107Bhbohrium740169025703600473059907230
    108Hshassium7301760283036404940618075408860
    109Mtmeitnerium8001820290039004900
    110Dsdarmstadtium9601890303040005100
    111Rgroentgenium10202070308041005300
    112Cncopernicium11552170316042005500
    113Nhnihonium707.22309322643825638
    114Flflerovium832.21600337044005850
    115Mcmoscovium538.31760265046805720
    116Lvlivermorium663.91330285038106080
    117Tstennessine736.91435.42161.94012.95076.4
    118Ogoganesson860.11560
    119Uueununennium462.01700
    120Ubnunbinilium563.3895–
    919
    121Ubuunbiunium300111017104270
    122Ubbunbibium540109018482520

    11th–20th Molar Ionization Energies of the Elements

    numbersymbolname11th12th13th14th15th16th17th18th19th20th
    11Nasodium159,076
    12Mgmagnesium169,988189,368
    13Alaluminium42,647201,266222,316
    14Sisilicon45,96250,502235,196257,923
    15Pphosphorus46,26154,11059,024271,791296,195
    16Ssulfur48,71054,46062,93068,216311,048337,138
    17Clchlorine51,06857,11963,36372,34178,095352,994380,760
    18Arargon52,00259,65366,19972,91882,47388,576397,605427,066
    19Kpotassium54,49060,73068,95075,90083,08093,40099,710444,880476,063
    20Cacalcium57,11063,41070,11078,89086,31094,000104,900111,711494,850527,762
    21Scscandium24,10266,32073,01080,16089,49097,400105,600117,000124,270547,530
    22Tititanium25,57528,12576,01583,28090,880100,700109,100117,800129,900137,530
    23Vvanadium24,67029,73032,44686,45094,170102,300112,700121,600130,700143,400
    24Crchromium26,13028,75034,23037,06697,510105,800114,300125,300134,700144,300
    25Mnmanganese27,59030,33033,15038,88041,987109,480118,100127,100138,600148,500
    26Feiron28,00031,92034,83037,84044,10047,206122,200131,000140,500152,600
    27Cocobalt29,40032,40036,60039,70042,80049,39652,737134,810145,170154,700
    28Ninickel30,97034,00037,10041,50044,80048,10055,10158,570148,700159,000
    29Cucopper25,60035,60038,70042,00046,70050,20053,70061,10064,702163,700
    30Znzinc26,40029,99040,49043,80047,30052,30055,90059,70067,300171,200
    36Krkrypton29,70033,80037,70043,10047,50052,20057,10061,80075,80080,400
    38Srstrontium31,270
    39Yyttrium19,90036,090
    42Momolybdenum20,19022,21926,93029,19652,49055,00061,40067,70074,00080,400

    21st–30th Molar Ionization Energies of the Elements

    numbersymbolname21st22nd23rd24th25th26th27th28th29th30th
    21Scscandium582,163
    22Tititanium602,930639,294
    23Vvanadium151,440661,050699,144
    24Crchromium157,700166,090721,870761,733
    25Mnmanganese158,600172,500181,380785,450827,067
    26Feiron163,000173,600188,100195,200851,800895,161
    27Cocobalt167,400178,100189,300204,500214,100920,870966,023
    28Ninickel169,400182,700194,000205,600221,400231,490992,7181,039,668
    29Cucopper174,100184,900198,800210,500222,700239,100249,6601,067,3581,116,105
    30Znzinc179,100
    36Krkrypton85,30090,40096,300101,400111,100116,290282,500296,200311,400326,200
    42Momolybdenum87,00093,40098,420104,400121,900127,700133,800139,800148,100154,500

    Periodic Table of Elements | Complete List of Chemical Elements by Group, Name, Symbol, Color and Type

    Periodic table elements
    Periodic Table of Elements | Complete List of Chemical Elements by Group, Name, Symbol, Color and Type

    Sources: PinterPandai, ChemicoolLive ScienceRoyal Society of Chemistry

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