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Heart diseases | List of cardiovascular diseases | Include pathologies that affect the heart and all of the blood vessels

Heart diseases | List of cardiovascular diseases | Include pathologies that affect the heart and all of the blood vessels

Heart diseases | List of cardiovascular diseases | Include pathologies that affect the heart and all of the blood vessels

List of Heart Diseases (cardiovascular diseases)

Cardiovascular diseases or heart diseases include pathologies that affect the heart and all of the blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis, heart rhythm disturbances, arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure or even stroke. . Heart diseases are caused by dysfunctions of the heart or blood vessels, they are particularly favored by smoking and an unbalanced diet and are responsible for a very large proportion of deaths in the population. Their diagnosis, most often carried out by a cardiologist, involves various medical examinations (electrocardiogram, MRI, ultrasound…).

What are the risk factors?

The main risk factors for heart disease and stroke are poor diet, lack of physical activity, smoking and harmful use of alcohol.

The effects of behavioral risk factors can cause people to have high blood pressure, high blood sugar, hyperlipidemia, overweight and obesity. These “intermediate risk factors” can be assessed in primary health care settings and are indicative of an increased risk of heart attack, stroke, heart failure and other complications.

Quitting smoking, reducing salt intake in your diet, consuming fruits and vegetables, exercising regularly and avoiding the harmful use of alcohol have been found to reduce the risk of heart diseases. In addition, drug treatment for diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia may be necessary to decrease heart diseases risk and prevent heart attacks and strokes. Health policies, which create the conditions for making good health choices both affordable and possible, are essential to encourage people to adopt and stick to healthy behavior.

Read also: Cholesterol (excess) | symptoms, causes, treatments, levels, foods, warning, dietary supplements

There are also a number of underlying determinants of heart diseases. They come from the main social, economic and cultural developments – globalization, urbanization and the aging of the population. Other determinants of heart diseases are poverty, stress and hereditary factors.

September 29: World Heart Day

Many cardiovascular diseases can be prevented. Everyone can act for better lifestyle habits: stop smoking, adopt a balanced diet, maintain regular physical activity, reduce sedentary behavior, reduce alcohol consumption, act on stress, reduce overweight. With health professionals, it is a question of evaluating the risk and reducing clinical factors such as arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, obesity or certain heart rhythm disorders.

The improvement of lifestyle habits, and drug treatments if necessary, complement each other to reduce an often multiple risk.


Cardiac arrhythmias

Coronary circulation disorders

Cardiac arrest

Disorders of the myocardium

Disorders of the pericardium

Disorders of the heart valves

Congenital heart defects

Diseases of blood vessels

Risk and prevention heart diseases

Prevention is essential!

Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading deaths among many countries. Therefore it is important to understand how to prevent them.

Lifestyle risk factors

Small, healthy changes in your daily routine can lower your risk of heart disease.

Risk factors you can’t control:


Your risk of heart disease and stroke increases after menopause… In fact, most women across the country have at least one risk factor associated with heart disease and stroke. Women who have diabetes, those from certain ethnic groups, and those going through the menopause are at even greater risk.


The risk of heart diseases increases with age.

Family and medical history

Your risk is higher if one of your close relatives has had heart disease at a young age.

Personal situation

Your personal situation and environmental factors influence your health. These are conditions like accessibility to healthy food, clean water, health care and social services.

Preventing heart diseases

Set a goal that will inspire you to be healthier. These are some examples:

Eat healthy

Eating a healthy diet, that is, eating a balanced diet, is one of the most effective ways to protect your health. Vegetables and fruits contain a lot of nutrients. Aim for 7 to 10 servings each day.

Your diet can help reduce your risk of heart disease and stroke by:

Prevention of heart disease by eating healthy

Many vegetables and fruits are particularly rich in vitamin C and beta-carotene, a form of vitamin A. These substances act as antioxidants in your body and help slow or prevent atherosclerosis by reducing the build-up of plaque formed by cholesterol and other substances inside the arteries. The great champions of vitamin C are:

Beta-carotene gives foods a distinctive red, orange or dark green color, so it’s easy to identify the best sources, such as:

Plus, almost all vegetables and fruits are low in calories, fat, and sodium. In fact, research shows that eating high vegetables and fruit is associated with maintaining a healthy weight.

A good source of fiber

Eating vegetables and fruits is an excellent source of fiber. When possible, eat the peel as well, as it increases your daily fiber intake. For example, a raw apple with its peel contains 10 times more fiber than 250 ml (1 cup) of apple juice.

Fresh and frozen products

Frozen or canned vegetables and fruits have about the same nutritional value as fresh ones. When buying canned or frozen fruit, look for products without syrup or added sugar. So fruit canned in water is the best option.

In order to retain as many nutrients as possible, the best cooking methods are steaming, roasting, or broiling. If you are using canned vegetables, look for varieties with no added salt or rinse them under running water to remove most of the added salt.

Protein can be obtained from several different sources, including:

When choosing your protein sources, it’s important to aim for variety. Aim to have at least two servings of fish each week and consume beans, lentils, and tofu on a regular basis. When buying meat, take it lean and go for servings of around 110 g (4 oz), which is the size of your palm.

Keep fit

To maintain a healthy heart, a little physical activity is very beneficial. Here are some tips for moving.

Exercise is the closest approach to the fountain of youth for anyone seeking eternal youth. Regular physical activity can help you reach and maintain a healthy weight, stay in shape, slow down the physical decline that accompanies aging, sleep better, reduce stress levels… and much more!

Try to be physically active every day. Walk to work, take a lunch break from being physically active, or take a walk after dinner. If you make activity part of your routine, you’ll find that it becomes easy and fun, and you don’t feel like you’re wasting time doing it.

Choose activities that you enjoy. This way, it’s more likely that you won’t give up. If you hate gyms, walk the hiking trails, garden, golf, or sign up for yoga classes.

Reduce stress

Managing stress will help you feel better every day and lower your risk for cardiovascular disease.

Stress can increase your risk for heart disease and stroke, and lead to depression or anxiety. It is therefore important that you are able to recognize and deal with your stress.

Healthy weight

Adopt healthy habits and a healthy weight – for life.

Controlling your weight doesn’t necessarily mean changing your lifestyle at all. Take it in small steps, set small, realistic goals for yourself, and then build from there. A small steady weight loss of 1 or 2 pound (½ to 1 kg) per week is easier to achieve and healthier for your heart than a large and sudden loss. Studies also show that you will be less likely to regain that lost weight.

Diseases | List of Diseases: dermatological, cardiovascular, respiratory, cancer, eye, genetic, infectious, mental illness, rare

Information: Cleverly Smart is not a substitute for a doctor. Always consult a doctor to treat your health condition.

Sources: PinterPandai, World Health Organization, Web MD, NHS UK, American Heart Association, Pan American Health Organization, Mayo Clinic

Photo credit (main picture): Wellcome Collection (Public Domain Mark 1.0)

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